Category Archives: Large/macrosomic babies

Study: Two-Thirds of OB-GYN Clinical Guidelines Have No Basis in Science

PushNews from The Big Push for Midwives Campaign
CONTACT: Katherine Prown, (414) 550-8025, katie@pushformidwives.org
FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE: August 15, 2011
Study: Two-Thirds of OB-GYN Clinical Guidelines Have No Basis in Science
Majority of ACOG Recommendations for Patient Care Found to Be Based on Opinion and Inconsistent Evidence
WASHINGTON, D.C. (August 15, 2011)—A study published this month in Obstetrics & Gynecology, the journal of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, found that barely one-third of the organization’s clinical guidelines for OB/GYN practice meet the Level A standard of “good and consistent scientific evidence.” The authors of the study found instead that the majority of ACOG recommendations for patient care rank at Levels B and C, based on research that relies on “limited or inconsistent evidence” and on “expert opinion,” both of which are known to be inadequate predictors of safety or efficacy.

“The fact that so few of the guidelines that govern routine OB/GYN care in this country are supported by solid scientific evidence—and worse, are far more likely to be based on anecdote and opinion—is a sobering reminder that our maternity care system is in urgent need of reform,” said Katherine Prown, PhD, Campaign Manager of The Big Push for Midwives. “As the authors of the study remind us, guidelines are only as good as the evidence that supports them.”

ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 22 on the management of fetal macrosomia—infants weighing roughly 8 ½ lbs or more at birth—illustrates the possible risks to mothers and babies of relying on unscientific clinical guidelines. The only Level A evidence-based recommendation on the delivery of large-sized babies the Bulletin makes is to caution providers that the methods for detection are imprecise and unreliable. Yet at the same time, the Bulletin makes a Level C opinion-based recommendation that, despite the lack of a reliable diagnosis, women with “suspected” large babies should be offered potentially unnecessary cesarean sections as a precaution, putting mothers at risk of surgical complications and babies at risk of being born too early.

“It’s no wonder that the cesarean rate is going through the roof and women are seeking alternatives to hospital-based OB/GYN care in unprecedented numbers,” said Susan M. Jenkins, Legal Counsel of The Big Push for Midwives. “ACOG’s very own recommendations give its members permission to follow opinion-based practice guidelines that have far more to do with avoiding litigation than with adhering to scientific, evidence-based principles about what’s best for mothers and babies.”

The Big Push for Midwives Campaign represents tens of thousands of grassroots advocates in the United States who support expanding access to Certified Professional Midwives and out-of-hospital maternity care. The mission of The Big Push for Midwives is to educate state and national policymakers and the general public about the reduced costs and improved outcomes associated with out-of-hospital maternity care and to advocate for expanding access to the services of Certified Professional Midwives, who are specially trained to provide it.

Media inquiries: Katherine Prown (414) 550-8025, katie@pushformidwives.org

VBAC vs. Repeat Cesarean by the American Academy of Family Physicians

This is a great piece for deciding between VBAC and repeat cesarean.  Those who wish to VBAC, but have husbands, family, and/or friends who don’t understand why, might find this document very useful.  I have found that people who are anti-VBAC really seem impressed by what doctors and medical organizations have to say, so I’m thinking they will find this document compelling.  Plus, VBAC has this reputation of being “risky” and repeat cesareans are thought of as the “conservative approach,” and this document challenges both lines of thinking.  Why not write a sweet little note like, “I know you are concerned about me choosing the VBAC, so I thought you would find this interesting,” and mail them a copy.  That way, they can read it, think it over, and you can chat about it later.  No one wants to see a loved one hurt or die, and since most believe that a repeat cesarean is the most conservative approach, they tend to lean in that direction.  However, once they understand that real, but small, risks are present with VBAC and repeat cesarean, and that the risks of VBAC go down with each VBAC whereas the risks of cesareans go up with each surgery, hopefully they will respect your decision.

I recommend bringing this document with you when you go to interview OBs about VBAC.  They might be unfamiliar with the data, and they too might be persuaded by a document written by a medical organization.  If your OB is anti-VBAC, this might be a good document to mail them once you have found a truly supportive OB or midwife.

I’ve included the entire text below because when I searched on Google for VBAC vs. Repeat Cesarean, it wasn’t on the first page of results, so I’d like to bring more attention to it.

Please note, they refer to VBAC as TOLAC (Trial of Labor After Cesarean.)

You can view and print the document in PDF format here: Trial of Labor After Cesarean: A Shared Patient-Physician Decision Tool

******************************************************************

In March 2005, the American Academy of
Family Physicians published an evidence based
clinical practice guideline on TOLAC
(Trial of Labor After Cesarean; formerly called
Trial of Labor Versus Elective Repeat Cesarean
Section for the Woman With a Previous
Cesarean Section).
The AAFP guideline
recommends offering a trial of labor to women
who have had one previous cesarean delivery
with a low transverse incision. The guideline
also recommends that physicians and other
maternity care professionals explore the risks
and benefits associated with a trial of labor with
each woman who is a candidate for TOLAC.
The following shared patient-physician decision
tool can be used to initiate the conversation
about the potential risks and benefits of TOLAC.
It is important to note that this piece is not
a patient education handout. It is not meant
to be used as a standalone tool. Physicians
should go through each section with the
TOLAC candidate and explain how each factor
may (or may not) affect her. After answering
any questions the patient may have, the
physician can give the annotated handout to
the patient so she and her partner can review
it as they consider their options.
To read the AAFP’s TOLAC Guideline, visit
http://www.aafp.org/tolac.

Patient name: ____________________________________________________
Physician: _______________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

Trial of Labor After Cesarean:
Deciding What’s Right for You
and Your Baby

Women who have had a baby by cesarean section (C-section)
may have a choice about how to have their next
baby. They may choose to have another C-section. This
is called an “elective repeat cesarean delivery” (ERCD for
short). Or they may decide to try having the baby vaginally.
This is called a “trial of labor after cesarean” (TOLAC). When
a woman tries a trial of labor and is able to deliver vaginally,
this is called a “vaginal birth after cesarean” (VBAC).

If you’re reading this handout, it’s because your doctor
has decided that you have a choice between a planned
C-section and a trial of labor. To help you understand the
risks and benefits of each, you doctor will go through
this handout with you. He or she will explain how the
factors below apply to you. Be sure to ask your doctor any
questions you have. It’s important that you understand all
of the issues before you make a decision.

If I try labor, how likely am I to have my baby vaginally?
Because every situation is different, no one can tell if you
will be able to give birth vaginally. However, you should
know that about 76 out of 100 women who try a trial of
labor deliver their babies vaginally.

What happens to women who try labor but can’t
deliver vaginally?
Some women who try a trial of labor are not able to deliver
vaginally and end up having an unplanned C-section. You
should know that most of the babies born by unplanned
C-section are healthy and do not have long-term problems
from the C-section.

Is it is safer trying labor or having a planned C-section?
You already know that having a baby—whether vaginally or
by C-section—has some risks. The risks are generally small
whether you choose a trial of labor or planned C-section.
Studies have shown that there is no difference between
the two when it comes to the woman’s risk of death or
hysterectomy. There are, however, a few other risks to
consider. These are explained below.

Infection. Of women who choose a trial of labor,
7 out of 100 will get an infection. By comparison,
9 or 10 out of 100 women who choose planned
C-section will get an infection. This means that women
who choose C-section have a slightly higher risk of
infection (2% to 3% higher) than women who choose a trial
of labor.

Uterine rupture. A C-section leaves a scar on the
uterus. During a trial of labor, the scar can break open.
Usually this doesn’t affect you or the baby. In rare cases,
however, it can pose serious risks to you or your baby.
This is called symptomatic uterine rupture and it occurs
in 2.7 out of 1,000 women, or about ¼ of 1%, who try a
trial of labor.

Infant death. Sometimes—but not always—uterine rupture
results in the death of the baby. The chance of
this is about 15 in 100,000, or about 1/100th of 1%, in
women who try a trial of labor. There is no good data
about the risk of infant death for women who choose
elective repeat C-section.

What factors affect my chances of delivering
vaginally?
Doctors have studied thousands of women who have
attempted a trial of labor. They found that the following
factors affect a woman’s chance of delivering vaginally.
Your doctor will tell you how these factors apply to you.
You might want to ask your doctor to put a checkmark
next to the factors that may affect you and to cross out
the ones that probably won’t.

Factors that increase the likelihood of a
vaginal birth after C-section (VBAC)

• Being younger than 40 years old. If you’re under 40,
you are 2½ times more likely to have a VBAC.
My age: _________
Other notes: ________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________

• Having a vaginal birth before. If you’ve ever had a
baby vaginally, you’re more likely to be able to deliver
that way again.
I had a baby vaginally, but it was before I had a
C-section. You are 1½ to 2 times more likely to
deliver vaginally again.
I had a baby vaginally after I had a baby by
C-section. You are 3 to 8 times more likely to
have a VBAC.
Notes about your previous delivery or deliveries:
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
Other notes: ________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________

• Having favorable cervical factors during labor. This
means that your cervix is dilated (open) and effaced
(thinned out) enough to deliver vaginally. If you’re well
dilated and effaced, you are 1½ to 5 times more likely
to have a VBAC. If you’ve had a vaginal birth before,
your cervix may open and thin out more quickly than if
you haven’t. If you haven’t had a vaginal birth, it’s hard
to tell how well dilated and effaced your cervix will
become during labor.
I have had a previous vaginal birth.
Other notes: ________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________

• If the reason you needed a C-section before isn’t
a factor this time. You might have needed a
C-section because of infection, difficult labor, breech
presentation, or concerns about the baby’s size or
heart rate. If you don’t have the same problem this
time, you are 2 times more likely to have a VBAC.
Reason for my previous C-section: ______________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
Other notes: ________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________

Factors that decrease the likelihood
of a VBAC

• Having had more than one C-section. If you have had
two or more C-sections, you’re 60% less likely to have
a VBAC.
Number of C-sections I’ve had: _________
Other notes: ________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________

• Going into labor after 40 weeks. After this time, you
are 20% to 30% less likely to have a VBAC.
My baby’s current gestational age: ________
My previous child(ren)’s gestational age(s) at birth:
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
Other notes: ________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________

RISK OF SYMPTOMATIC UTERINE
RUPTURE IN ALL WOMEN
For all women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Less than 1 birth per 1,000
For women who have
not had a C-section . . . . . . . . . Less than 1 birth per 1,000
For women who have an
elective repeat C-section . . . . About 1 birth per 1,000
For women who have a trial
of labor after C-section . . . . . . 2 to 4 births per 1,000
(800) 274-2237 • www.aafp.org

• Trying to deliver a baby that is 8 pounds, 13 ounces
(4,000 grams) or larger. If your baby weighs this much
(or more), you are 40% less likely to have a VBAC.
My baby’s current estimated weight: ____________
My previous child(ren)’s weight(s) at birth: _______
Other notes: ________________________________
__________________________________________

• Using medicines to induce or augment labor. If you
need medicine to start or help your labor, you are 50%
less likely to have a VBAC.
Notes: _____________________________________
__________________________________________

What if I have other concerns?
In addition to thinking about your health and that of your
baby, you’re probably dealing with emotional issues
and practical concerns about the birth. Some common
concerns are listed below. When you read through this
list, you may want to put a checkmark next to the issues
you really care about and cross out those that aren’t
as important to you. Talk with your doctor about your
concerns. These issues haven’t been studied like the ones
above, but your doctor may be able to give you some
insight into how they might affect you.

Recovery time. If you deliver vaginally, you’ll probably
spend less time in the hospital and be back on your
feet more quickly. Some women think this is important
because they’ll be caring for the new baby and their older
children too.

Involvement in the delivery. For some women, having a
baby vaginally is more emotionally satisfying than having
a C-section. You get to hold your baby sooner, which
may help with bonding and even with breastfeeding. Your
partner may feel more involved in a vaginal birth too.

Future childbearing. Doctors typically don’t want women
to have more than two or three C-sections. So, you’re more
likely to be able to have more children if you have a vaginal
birth instead of another C-section.

Planned versus unplanned delivery date. Because
it’s better to go into labor on your own when you’re
planning a trial of labor, you probably won’t be able to
be induced. Not knowing when you will go into labor can
be stressful. It can also be a problem if you can’t arrange
for someone to watch your other child or children at a
moment’s notice. For these reasons, some women prefer
to plan on a C-section.

Pain during labor and delivery. If you had an especially
difficult and painful labor before, you may fear going
through it again. For this reason, some women prefer to
have another C-section and avoid labor. It’s important to
remember, though, that there are ways to manage the pain
if you decide on a trial of labor.

How do I make this choice?
You and your partner should work with your doctor to
decide whether the benefits of a trial of labor outweigh
the risks.

If you decide to try labor, you and your doctor will talk
about what to do if it looks like your labor is running into
complications. It’s best to have a plan before you begin your
labor so that you don’t have to make decisions during labor.
References

1. Wall E, Roberts R, Deutchman M, Hueston W, Atwood LA, Ireland B.
Trial of labor after cesarean (TOLAC), formerly trial of labor versus
elective repeat cesarean section for the woman with a previous
cesarean section. Leawood, Kan.: American Academy of Family
Physicians; March 2005.
2. Guise J-M, McDonagh M, Hashima J, Kraemer DF, Eden KB,
Berlin M, et al. Vaginal Birth After Cesarean (VBAC). Evidence
Report/Technology Assessment No. 71. Rockville, Md.: Agency for
Healthcare Research and Quality; March 2003. AHRQ Publication
No. 03-E018.
3. Gardeil F, Daly S, Turner MJ. Uterine rupture in pregnancy reviewed.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1994;56:107-10.
4. Miller DA, Goodwin TM, Gherman RB, Paul RH. Intrapartum rupture
of the unscarred uterus. Obstet Gynecol 1997;89:671-3.
5. Kieser KE, Baskett TF. A 10-year population based study of uterine
rupture. Obstet Gynecol 2002;100:749-53.

Neonatal nurse has a homebirth VBAC

This is a great birth story, published with permission, of a woman who had a cesarean for “small pelvis” and then VBACed a larger baby at home!  Since she is a neonatal nurse, it’s interesting to read why she chose HBAC and how she thinks her birth would have gone differently had she labored in a hospital.


I just wanted to let everyone know that I gave birth to a healthy baby
girl Wednesday June 11th. I had a C/S with my son 2 years ago. He was
8lbs 2oz and I was told that my pelvis wasn’t big enough to birth an
8lb baby. Well my VBAC baby was 9lbs 2 oz. Exactly a pound bigger than
they told me. I knew I wasn’t broken. I chose to have a homebirth
because I felt I would always have to fight for what I wanted in the
hospital. My labor went great. Started around 3am contractions coming
10 minutes apart. Then progressed to 3-5 min apart at around 6:30am.
My midwife got there around 7:30am. Later I wanted to go into the
birthing tub to try to get through the contractions. My midwife wanted
to check to see how far I was. 4cm and 100% effaced. She told me to
try to hold off on the tub because it would be better when I am
further in labor. I then took a hot shower. For me the contractions
were more bearable standing up. When one would come on I would bend my
knees and lean over onto either the couch, my bed or my husband. The
worse position for me to labor on was my back and my side. After the
shower I asked if I could go into the tub again. She checked me and I
was 6cm with a bulging bag. I did go into the tub which for me didn’t
make much difference in the contractions. But at that point I stayed
in there for quite a while because it took too much energy for me to
move. For me the worse part was going from 6 cm to complete. I thought
it would have been the pushing part but it wasn’t. In the tub I did
feel like pushing a little bit. We couldn’t tell if my water had
broken since I was in the tub. I decided to get checked in the tub to
see if the water had indeed broken and plus since I was feeling
“pushy.” Still at 6cm but the bag was bulging more. They think that
was why I was feeling like I had to push. They let me push a couple of
pushes to see if that would break my water but it didn’t. Then they
told me not to push and just try to breath through the contractions.
My water still wasn’t breaking and it was the hardest thing trying not
to push when that overwhelming feeling was there. They gave me the
option of breaking my water and felt that once they did that the
baby’s head would apply to the cervix and help with dilation. I
agreed. They broke the water and sure enough baby’s head came right
down and I was 8-9cm. The pushing feeling let up and I labored more
for a while. I then started feeling pushy again and they decided to
check to make sure I was fully dilated before I fully pushed. I just
had an anterior lip. Again they told me not to push so that the
anterior lip would pull back over the baby’s head and not swell. I was
dying to push but breathed through each contraction for an hour or
two. (I lost all sense of time so I don’t know exactly how long it
was) The best position for me was on my hands and knees but they said
that with the anterior lip that the position was actually making it
worse. They wanted me to lie on my back to help take pressure off the
cervix to facilitate it moving around the baby’s head. Lying on my
back was so unbearable but I did it to help with the dilation. The
midwife decided to try to help push the cervix over the head. She told
me to push while she held it out of the way. Finally her head came
down and I could fully push to my heart’s desire. That felt great.
They asked if I wanted to go back to the hands and knees position
since the cervix isn’t an issue now but I said I just could not bear
to move to another position. Then the “ring of fire came” Boy did that
burn. Finally her head came out and, surprise, so did a hand. They
said that her hand was across her face. They pulled the hand out along
with the head and since one shoulder was in and one was out she was
having a little bit of trouble maneuvering. They wanted me to flip to
my hands and knees to open up the pelvis more. I thought they were
crazy. Me trying to flip over with a head hanging out. I knew that I
just had to do it as quickly as I could or it wouldn’t have gotten
done. My husband said he had never seen me move so quickly in my life.
I pushed a little more and she was out! Amazingly I had no tears.
Personally I thought that was pretty amazing to have my first full
term vaginal birth of 9lbs 2oz with no tears what-so-ever! So to all
of those women who have been told that you would have died in
childbirth because you couldn’t push out your own baby YOU CAN! I am
proof that I delivered a baby 1 pound bigger than what they said.
I am an RN in labor an delivery and see all of the unnecessary
interventions that they do. I was pondering about my birth. If I would
have chosen a hospital birth I probably would have ended up with
another c/s or an episiotomy. There were times during my birth where I
thought am I crazy I can’t deal with this pain. The midwives and doula
helped me through the intense contractions. If I was at the hospital
they would have bullied me into an epidural and therefore I wouldn’t
have been able to move around to get her to come down. Also I wouldn’t
have been able to feeling the progression of her head coming down when
I pushed. With my son I pushed and couldn’t really feel any progress
so mentally I was losing hope. With this birth it didn’t feel like I
pushed for an hour because I could feel the accomplishment of her
coming down. I see this happen all of the time at the hospital. If a
mom isn’t pushing quick enough for the Dr or they think the head is
too big then they will automatically do an episiotomy. They probably
would have done that and it just shows that it would have been for
nothing and I would have had a longer recovery time. So therefore I am
grateful that I found homebirth and such wonderful midwives. Any of
you who are contemplating homebirth vs hospital try your best to do
homebirth. Don’t let money be an issue. After all is said and done
money is money. You can always earn the money back but not the
experience of a wonderful birth. I hope this inspires all of you who
are having the normal feelings of “what if I can’t do it.” Good luck
to your future births, You CAN do it!