Tag Archives: jen kamel

Judgment in the birth community: Fitting in after a cesarean

A woman who had four cesareans, after planning VBACs and home births, recently contacted me. She didn’t know where she fit into the birth community.

My heart went out to her because there have been periods in my life when I have felt isolated and alone. And it’s a crappy feeling.

I replied to her:

A vaginal delivery is not required to participate in the birth community. There are many cesarean moms just like you who are seeking compassion, connection, and understanding. You could be a soft place for other women to land as they mourn (or celebrate!) their cesarean deliveries.

The mission of VBAC Facts goes above and beyond our personal birth preferences. Really, the goal is education and access to VBAC.

The goal *is not* for everyone to have a VBAC because, as you know, there are many reasons why someone would have a cesarean birth, including scheduling an elective cesarean. And that is that parent’s choice! And those mothers are no less of a parent, advocate, or sister to those within the birth community.

I know one woman who had four cesareans and runs an ICAN chapter. Again, it’s not about how her births played out, but rather education and, ultimately, respecting the choices other parents make while holding space for them when birth doesn’t go as planned.

If you are feeling rejected, perhaps you need to find a new group of people to hang with! 🙂

We all don’t have to birth the same to support each other

The judgment that this mom is experiencing is why I spend so much time in my workshop, “The Truth About VBAC” talking about individualized risk assessment. This is a fancy way of saying, “There are a lot of different reasons that go into why someone plans a specific type of birth.”

I discuss this subject at great length, including all the factors that one might consider and the fact that both VBAC and repeat cesarean are valid options.

I really want to assure students that there is no Right Way to Birth. Only what is Right for Them.

Releasing the judgment about how other people birth

I also want to explore the subject so that people who staunchly believe that there is a Right Way to Birth can see how there are so many reasons why someone might choose to birth differently than them… and possibly release that judgment.

(That’s also why I recently revamped the VBAC Facts homepage to feature two cesarean births.)

The whole point is: How you birth, is up to you. It’s frankly no one else’s business. Not mine. Not your girlfriend’s. Not the PTA president’s. It’s Your Birth.

And no matter what birth you choose, if you believe that parents should have access to VBAC, VBAC Facts is your birth community.

I have said this so many times in so many venues and yet I still receive comments like this from email subscribers:

I’m leaning toward repeat c-section. I already feel you scrunching up your face. I feel shamed for going with repeat c-section. People assume I am ignorant to the facts. They assume a lot of things. I feel like I have to justify this decision to everyone.

Ouch. Dear reader, I don’t feel that way at all. It hurts my heart that what should be a joyous time in your life is filled with deflecting the unsupportive opinions of others. Regardless of how you birth, your choices should be respected because it’s Your Birth.

Supporting access and respect, not dictating outcomes

It’s tough because there is so much judgment and so much defensiveness when it comes to birth and even what advocacy really means.

For me, VBAC advocacy is about access to VBAC, which is very different than saying, “I think everyone should have a VBAC.” And because my focus is access and not a specific mode of delivery, I don’t judge women who plan to have a repeat cesarean section. Full stop.

One of the reasons why I started VBAC Facts is that I saw people cherry picking information, misinterpreting the conclusions of medical studies, and basically manipulating the facts in order to convince other people to make the same birthing decisions they did.

Because they judged those that birthed differently than them.

How what other people think can impact your options

I created VBAC Facts, and I ultimately developed educational programs, so parents, birth professionals, and even medical providers could get the actual facts. The actual statistics. The actual recommendations. Rather than basing their opinion on someone else’s personal risk assessment of what was “safe” or “risky.”

And sometimes what other people think – like the Head of Obstetrics at your hospital or your hospital administrator – can set of the tone of your facility and even if they “allow” you to attend VBAC.

And for pregnant people, it can be the well-intended, but misinformed opinion of their friends and family. And that judgment and disapproval is enough to persuade some mothers to schedule a repeat cesarean just to keep the family peace.

It’s all about learning the facts so you can make your own decisions… and giving others the space to make theirs. And once people realize that there is no Right Way to Birth and that everyone knows the Right Way for Them, we can truly celebrate how we each start and grow our families without judging each other for how we do it. That’s what I call #factsoveragenda.

How do you describe your birth community? As a cesarean parent, how were you received and did you feel supported? If not, where did you go to find support?

When you are the statistic: Uterine rupture loss

Above: “I donated my wedding dress to be made into gowns for deceased infants to be buried in. I had pictures done in my dress before I donated it. This is one of my favorites.” – Kaila Flory

Kaila Flory lost her baby to a uterine rupture eight months ago. She recently reached out to me and gave me permission to share her story and pictures of her son Beau.  She is currently raising money to purchase Cuddle Cots in Beau’s memory. Cuddle Cots are refrigerated bassinets that enable loss parents to spend more time with their child. While t-shirt sales end on April 22, 2016 at midnight EST, you can donate anytime. Even just $10 will get her closer to her goal. Buy a t-shirt and/or donate here.  Connect with her Facebook page here

Women who have had uterine ruptures and lost their babies have endured some of our greatest fears. But they are part of our community as well. When the VBAC Facts Community, a Facebook group, was open to the public, we welcomed and embraced the parents who joined us after their loss. Often they felt like they were no longer part of the birth community. They didn’t know where they fit in. They felt isolated and yet they wanted to share their story. We had many loss moms as members and many parents who were planning VBACs wanted to hear their stories.

What follows is Kaila’s story.

Kaila’s Flory’s first son was born by cesarean after being induced for intrauterine growth restriction. When she was 38 weeks and a few days pregnant with her second son, 26-year-old Kaila started having cramps around 1 a.m. “Luckily I had stayed with my dad, so I was not alone with my 3 year old. My husband was at Basic Training. Then a contraction came. Ok, I thought, this is real. It’s time. Then another came. It had only been like a minute or 2. Then severe pain came over my abdomen, and my face and limbs went numb.”

Her father called the paramedics and she was rushed to the hospital, where a STAT c-section was ordered. She nearly bled to death.


“This is the only photo I have of myself holding him. I requested people to not take my photo, but I am so glad my best friend took this with her phone. THIS is what raw, real pain looks like. This is why I want people to have Infant Loss Awareness.”

She says:

While I wholeheartedly believe that women should be given the option for VBACs, I also believe women need to consider their child’s health as the most important in this situation. I would have loved to have 3 weeks of pain just to have my son in my arms. I know it is not my fault, and that they do not, normally, schedule a c-section until 39 weeks, but part of me still feels guilty.

When Kaila contacted me, my heart broke. I emailed her back:


Thank you so much for sharing your story with me and I am so sorry about your loss.

I want you to know that I hear you. I really hear you.

I talk quite a bit about how these small numbers represent real women and real babies and it doesn’t matter how small the risk is, if it happens to you, if you are that number, it’s devastating.

The difficulty is that there are serious risks both ways. With VBAC, we have uterine rupture. With repeat cesareans, we have accreta.

Accreta results in more maternal deaths, more maternal complications and comparable infant deaths and complications to uterine rupture. Accreta requires a more sophisticated response of which many hospitals are unable to offer which results in more deaths and complications. Many women are never told about the risks of accreta which prohibits them from making an informed decision. [View my sources and read more about accreta here.]

I discuss uterine rupture and accreta extensively in my workshops including how often it happens, variables that can impact the rate, and outcomes for mother and baby because there is so much confusion about where the risk lies and what could happen.

The other difficulty is that no can predict how an individual birth will play out. Will you be the one to have a uterine rupture? An accreta? And in either of these situations, will you be the one to lose your baby? Or will you have a safe VBAC or repeat cesarean with a healthy mom and baby? There are no guarantees in life and no crystal balls.

Some women who lose their babies to uterine rupture say, “Don’t plan VBACs.”

Some women who lose their babies to accreta say, “I wish I had access to VBAC.”

So the question is, if there are serious complications either way, who should make the decision on how to birth?

It always comes down to the mother.

Given the small chance of a bad outcome, women should have the option to decide what set of risks and benefits are tolerable to them. They should not be forced into cesareans or mislead into VBACs. This needs to be their decision based on information. Part of the reason why I started VBAC Facts is that I, as a consumer, wanted more information and it wasn’t easy for me to find.

To bring it full circle, I hear you.

Have you had the opportunity to connect with other loss moms? I have compiled a resource page here.

I know it may ring hollow, but you are not to blame. Sometimes things happen that we cannot predict and that are outside of our control and I’m so very sorry you were the statistic.

I’ll keep you in my heart Kaila. <3



Kaila replied:

I will be honest with you, my doctor did not mention accreta once. Wow that is scary too. 🙁 I don’t wish that or a rupture on anyone. Thank you so much for responding to me. And thank you for advising women on what to do after a C-section. If you ever want to use my story, please let me know. I would be happy to share it for statistic purposes. Thanks so much! 🙂

So I’m sharing Kaila’s story today. As I said in my email to her, I talk about the risks of uterine rupture and accreta in my workshops because they are both real risks on either side of the equation. Sadly, a small number of people will experience this reality, and they deserve our support and compassion.

I do hope you will support Kaila’s Cuddle Cots fundraiser. Even just $10 will get her closer to her goal. Donate here. Connect with her Facebook page here.

Learn more about Infant Loss Awareness here.

Calling women who plan home VBACs “stupid” misses the point

I’m in an online group for labor & delivery nurses where the discussion of vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC) at home came up. While some understood the massive VBAC barriers many women face, others simply said, “Find a hospital that supports VBAC.”

I left a late-night comment stating that “finding another hospital that supports VBAC” is just not a reality in many areas of the country. It’s literally not possible. Not even in the highly populated state of California. (Barger, 2013)

I also suggested rather than calling women stupid or debating the validity of the decision to have a home VBAC​, we should consider why women make this decision.

First, it is not one they take lightly.  Every parent wants a safe, healthy birth for themselves and their baby. It takes more research, work, and energy to plan a home VBAC—and it usually means thousands of out-of-pocket dollars up front. It is most certainly not the easy way out.

Women choose out-of-hospital birth due to disrespectful and abusive care, including obstetric violence and forced/coerced cesareans, delivered by hospitals. Parents also choose out-of-hospital VBAC due to VBAC bans and restrictive VBAC policies (i.e., repeat CS scheduled at 39 weeks, labor can only last 12 hours, baby must weigh less than _____, no induction/ augmentation, etc.).

These are serious issues:

Disrespectful care.

Abusive care.

Obstetric violence.

Forced/coerced cesareans.

VBAC bans.

Restrictive VBAC policies.

And this isn’t a comprehensive list of why women choose home VBAC, but it’s the ones that many nurses, providers, and administrators have control over.

In my comment on the nurses’ group, I posted the link to my California Medical Board testimony addressing these barriers and the resulting importance of access to out-of-hospital VBAC.​

We shouldn’t be asking why women are so stupid and reckless.  We should be asking:

“What can we do to make women feel safe coming to our hospital to give birth?”


“How can we increase access to VBAC in all hospital settings?”

I also suggested that coming from a place of judgment on this option may very well color the tone of their communication. Even if they’re not using the words “stupid” or “reckless,” parents will pick up on what’s not being said. That’s not good for the provider-patient relationship. People want to be heard, understood, and respected. All of us.

It’s important to hear parents when they talk about their past hospital experiences, without being defensive.

Hear them and see it as an opportunity to make a change. Consider, how can you make a difference in your practice and facility?

If this were any other business, we would probably say that this is a services and marketing problem.

If you have a restaurant, and you start to lose customers to a competitor, you figure out why your customers are leaving and appeal to that.

You don’t slam the other restaurant.

You don’t call your customers stupid because someone else is offering a product that they like better.

Even if you would never personally eat there, that other restaurant is offering something that people want. And they are leaving your restaurant to get it.

So, find out what that thing is and change it.

Yes, I said all that in this nurses’ group.  The next morning, I checked to see how my comments were taken, because I know from experience that not everyone wants to hear or acknowledge the realities I outlined.

I smiled to see that the conversation had remained respectful, even from some folks who disagreed with me.  There was no name calling. No personal attacks.  My comments even had a couple likes!

It is possible to disagree without being disagreeable. And I think it’s so important to consider that many women around the country do not have access to respectful care in a facility that supports VBAC.

What are some other reasons that women choose out-of-hospital birth? Leave your comment below.

Learn more:

Askins, L., & Pascucci, C. (n.d.). Retrieved from Exposing the Silence Project: http://www.exposingthesilenceproject.com/

Barger, M. K., Dunn, T. J., Bearman, S., DeLain, M., & Gates, E. (2013). A survey of access to trial of labor in California hospitals in 2012. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3636061/pdf/1471-2393-13-83.pdf

Kamel, J. (2014, Dec 17). What I told the California Medical Board about home VBAC. Retrieved from VBAC Facts: http://vbacfacts.com/2014/12/17/what-i-told-medical-board-home-vbac-part-1/

Kamel, J. (2016, Jan 6). “No one can force you to have a cesarean” is false. Retrieved from VBAC Facts: http://vbacfacts.com/2016/01/06/no-force-cesarean-false/

Pascucci, C. (2014, Feb 17). Home Birth vs. Hospital Birth: YOU’RE MISSING THE POINT, PEOPLE. Retrieved from Improving Birth: http://improvingbirth.org/2014/02/versus/


“Hospitals offering VBAC are required to have 24/7 anesthesia” is false

In 2010, I was sitting next to an OB/GYN during a lunch break at the National Institutes of Health VBAC Conference. She was telling me about how she had worked at a rural hospital, without 24/7 anesthesia, that offered vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC).

I asked her what they did in the event of an emergency. “I perform an emergency cesarean under local anesthetic,” she plainly stated. She explained how you inject the anesthetic along the intended incision line, cut and then inject the next layer and cut, all the way down until you get to the baby.

It certainly wasn’t ideal, but it was how her small facility was able to support VBAC while responding to those uncommon, but inevitable, complications that require immediate surgical delivery.

CLICK to share on Facebook.

CLICK to share on Facebook.

They had everything a hospital needs to offer VBAC: a supportive policy, supportive providers, and motivation to make VBAC available at their hospital.

From a public health standpoint, it’s to our benefit to offer VBAC because repeat cesareans increase the rate of accreta in future pregnancies as well as hysterectomy and excessive bleeding.

And rural hospitals are NOT capable of managing an accreta because it requires far more than (local) anesthesia and a surgeon. (Read more on how morbidity, mortality, and ideal response differs between uterine rupture & accreta.)

When I hear of smaller, rural hospitals telling women that they can’t offer VBAC because “ACOG requires” 24/7 anesthesia, I think of that OB/GYN and ACOG’s (2010) guidelines which state

Women and their physicians may still make a plan for a TOLAC [trial of labor after cesarean] in situations where there may not be “immediately available” staff to handle emergencies, but it requires a thorough discussion of the local health care system, the available resources, and the potential for incremental risk.

So, yes, it is possible and reasonable to offer VBAC without 24/7 anesthesia.

It is ideal? No.

But do you know what else is not ideal?

It’s not ideal to have VBAC bans mandating repeat cesareans that expose women to the increasing risks of surgical birth across the board as a matter of policy—risks that can be far more serious and life-threatening than the risks of VBAC.

It’s not ideal to have any vaginal delivery at a hospital that doesn’t offer 24/7 anesthesia, because any woman giving birth may require emergency surgery.

It’s not ideal to have a cesarean (scheduled or emergency) at a hospital that doesn’t have a blood bank.

It’s not ideal nor realistic to have every pregnant woman drive hours in labor to larger hospitals that offer blood banks, 24/7 anesthesia, and various obstetric sub-specialties for planned VBAC.

It’s not ideal to have state troopers attending roadside births for some of those women.

And it’s deadly for rural hospitals to be managing a surprise accreta.

So, we have to come up with better options.

We can’t continue to pretend that banning VBAC is in the best interest of families.  It does not serve our communities in the long run because it simply exposes the ones we love to a more serious complication in future pregnancies.

Learning how to perform a cesarean under local anesthetic makes hospitals—regardless of geography—safer places to give birth. It enables them to perform cesareans more quickly when they don’t have an anesthesiologist in the hospital but the baby needs to be born NOW.

This could make a huge difference in the outcomes for any laboring mom—VBAC or non-VBAC—as well as her baby.

Learn more about VBAC barriers and watch me debunk the four reasons why hospitals ban VBAC in my workshop, “The Truth About VBAC.”

Does your rural hospital offer VBAC or not?

Does your urban or suburban hospital offer VBAC or not?

Leave a comment below!


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2010). Practice Bulletin No. 115: Vaginal Birth After Previous Cesarean Delivery. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 116 (2), 450-463,http://m.acog.org/Resources_And_Publications/Practice_Bulletins/Committee_on_Practice_Bulletins_Obstetrics/Vaginal_Birth_After_Previous_Cesarean_Delivery

Kamel, J. (2015, April 2). Too Bad We Can’t Just “Ban” Accreta – The Downstream Consequences of VBAC Bans. Retrieved from Science & Sensibility: http://www.scienceandsensibility.org/placenta-accreta-vbac-ban/

Kamel, J. (2010, July 22). VBAC ban rationale is irrational. Retrieved from VBAC Facts: http://vbacfacts.com/2010/07/22/vbac-ban-rationale-is-irrational/

Komorowski, J. (2010, Oct 11). A Woman’s Guide to VBAC: Putting Uterine Rupture into Perspective. Retrieved from Giving Birth with Confidence: http://www.givingbirthwithconfidence.org/p/bl/ar/blogaid=181

“No one can force you to have a cesarean” is false

Update: Since this article was originally published, it has been updated with several new resources (listed at the bottom) as well as a video.




“No one can force you to have a cesarean.” I see this all the time in message boards.

Don’t worry about

… the VBAC ban

…your unsupportive provider

… your provider’s 40 week deadline

… [insert other VBAC barrier here]

no one can force you to have a cesarean.

That’s just not true.

Let’s start with what is ethical and legal: Yes, no one can legally force you to have a cesarean.

ACOG even says in their latest VBAC guidelines that “restrictive VBAC policies should not be used to force women to undergo a repeat cesarean delivery against their will.” So even if your facility has a VBAC ban, they still cannot force you to have surgery… legally or ethically.

But then you have reality: It happens all the time, but it may look different than you expect.

It’s often NOT a woman screaming “I do not consent” as she is wheeled into the OR, though that has happened.

It’s through lies. It’s through fear.

“The risk of uterine rupture is 25%.”

“Do you want a healthy baby or a birth experience?”

“Planning a VBAC is like running across a busy freeway.”

Hospital policy and provider preference are presented as superseding the woman’s right to decline surgery.

“No one attends VBAC here.”

“It’s against our policy.”

“We don’t allow VBACs.”

Or unreasonable timelines are assigned giving the woman the illusion of choice.

“You have to go into labor by 39 weeks.”

“Your labor can’t be longer than 12 hours.”

“You have to dilate at least 1 centimeter per hour.”

Or it can be a slow process where a seemingly once supportive provider quietly withdraws support exchanging words of encouragement with caution. Dr. Brad Bootstaylor, an Atlanta based OBGYN, describes how this can unfold at 4:00 in this video after a woman describes her experience:

Or, if the birthing parents don’t listen, it can escalate to calling social services, ordering a psychiatric evaluation, or even getting a court order for a forced cesarean.

It can be as simple as, “Your baby is distress.” How do you know if this is true or not? Are you willing to take that risk?

Some people suggest that parents should learn how to interpret fetal heart tones so they can evaluate their baby’s status. But I think this is a wholly unreasonable expectation for non-medical professionals, especially when one is in labor. It is as much an art as it is a science.

In short, coercion frequently isn’t by physical force. It’s through manipulation. This is why it’s worth your time and effort to search for a supportive provider who you trust to attend your birth.

Don’t just think, “Well, I can hire anyone and simply refuse.”

Sometimes it’s not that simple as Rinat Dray, was forced to have a cesarean, and Kimberly Turbin, who received a 12-cut episiotomy while yelling “Do not cut me,” know all too well.

And this is why understanding the complete picture is important. It’s not enough to ponder how things are “supposed to be” or how we want them to be, but how they actually are. The difference between perception and reality is huge. Learn more in my online workshop, “The Truth About VBAC.”

Have you seen a situation like described above play out? Share it in the comment section.

Continue the conversation & share on Facebook here:

There is a huge difference between what is legal, what is ethical, and what actually happens. #forcedcesareans #ethicalvsreality #vbacfacts

Posted by www.VBACFACTS.com on Wednesday, January 6, 2016


Learn more:

ACLU. (n.d.). Coercive and punitive governmental responses womens conduct during pregnancy. Retrieved from ACLU: https://www.aclu.org/coercive-and-punitive-governmental-responses-womens-conduct-during-pregnancy

Cantor, J. D. (2012, Jun 14). Court-Ordered Care — A Complication of Pregnancy to Avoid. New England Journal of Medicine, 366, 2237-2240. Retrieved from http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMp1203742?

Hartocollis, A. (2014, May 16). Mother accuses doctors of forcing a c-section and files suit. Retrieved from The New York Times: http://nytimes.com/2014/05/17/nyregion/mother-accuses-doctors-of-forcing-a-c-section-and-files-suit.html?referrer=&_r=0

Human Rights in Childbirth. (2015, Jan 14). Rinat Dray is not alone, Part 1. Retrieved from Human Rights in Childbirth: http://www.humanrightsinchildbirth.org/amicusbriefpart1/

International Cesarean Awareness Network. (n.d.). Your right to refuse: What to do if your hospital has “banned” VBAC. Retrieved from Feminist Women’s Health Center: http://www.fwhc.org/health/pdf_about_vbac.pdf

Jacobson, J. (2014, Jul 25). Florida hospital demands woman undergo forced c-section. Retrieved from RH Reality Check: http://rhrealitycheck.org/article/2014/07/25/florida-hospital-demands-woman-undergo-forced-c-section/

Kamel, J. (2012, Mar 2). Options for a mom who will be ‘forced’ to have a cesarean. Retrieved from VBAC Facts: http://vbacfacts.com/2012/03/02/options-mom-forced-repeat-cs/

Maryland Families for Safe Birth. (2015, Jan 28). The truth about VBAC: Maryland families need access. Retrieved from YouTube: https://youtu.be/C5nymk3IGqE

Paltrow, L. M., & Flavin, J. (2013, April). Arrests of and forced interventions on pregnant women in the United States, 1973-2005: Implications for women’s legal status and public health. Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law, 38(2), 299-343. Retrieved from http://jhppl.dukejournals.org/content/early/2013/01/15/03616878-1966324.full.pdf+html

Pascucci, C. (2015, Jun 4). Press Release: Woman charges OB with assault & battery for forced episiotomy. Retrieved from Improving Birth: http://improvingbirth.org/2015/06/preview-woman-charges-ob-with-assault-battery-for-forced-episiotomy/

Shoulder pain is a symptom of uterine rupture

I’ve written before about the symptoms of uterine rupture as well as how having an epidural does not interfere with the diagnosis of uterine rupture.

The focus of this Quick Fact is how shoulder pain can be a symptom of uterine rupture.

How can an uterine rupture cause shoulder pain?

Image Source: http://wesleytodd.blogspot.com/2013/10/ablation-for-recurring-af-i.html

Image Source: http://wesleytodd.blogspot.com/2013/10/ablation-for-recurring-af-i.html

Internal bleeding from uterine rupture can cause referred pain through the phrenic nerve which can present in the shoulder.

Shoulder pain is sometimes not included in lists of uterine rupture symptoms, but I have seen it cited multiple places (see below) and have had conversations with OBs, nurses, and anesthesiologists who have experienced uterine ruptures with shoulder pain.

I’m also aware of two cases where the uterine rupture diagnosis was delayed because staff was not familiar with the incidence of referred pain.

Anyone who works with birthing women should be aware of the symptoms of uterine rupture including referred pain.

Please note that not every uterine rupture causes shoulder pain and not all shoulder pain is a symptom of uterine rupture.

Where can you learn more?

I discuss uterine rupture – factors, symptoms, rates, and outcomes – at great lengths in my online workshop, “The Truth About VBAC: History, Politics, & Stats

The following quotes addressing shoulder pain & uterine rupture are from case studies and textbooks. Want more? Google uterine rupture referred pain or uterine rupture shoulder pain.

“APH [brisk antepartum haemorrhage], as in this case, often indicates uterine rupture and may occur in association with shoulder tip pain due to haemoperitoneum.” (Navaratnam, 2011)

“Management of uterine rupture depends on prompt detection and diagnosis. The classic signs (sudden tearing uterine pain, vaginal haemorrhage, cessation of uterine contractions, regression of the fetus) have been shown to be unreliable and frequently absent but any of the following should alert suspicion… Chest or shoulder tip pain and sudden shortness of breath.” (Payne, 2015)

“Signs and symptoms of uterine rupture may include… referred pain in the shoulder (with epidural anesthesia)” (Murry, 2007 p.283)

“Jaw, neck, or shoulder pain can be referred pain from a uterine rupture.” (Murry, 2007, p.76)

“Shoulder pain (Kehr’s sign) is a valuable sign of intraperitoneal blood in subdiaphragmatic region. Even a small amount of blood can cause this symptom, but it is important to realize that it may be 24 h or longer after the bleeding has occurred before blood will track up under the diaphragm, and some cases of acute massive intraperitoneal bleeding may not initially have shoulder pain.” (Augustin, 2014, p. 512)

“Shoulder tip pain may be experienced if significant haemoperitoneum is present, due to irritation of the diaphragm (i.e. referred pain through phrenic nerve).” (Baker, 2015, p.373)


Augustin, G. (2014). Acute abdomen during pregnancy. Switzerland: Springer International Publishing. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?id=mq8pBAAAQBAJ

Baker, P. N., McEwan, A. S., Arulkumaran, S., Datta, S. T., Mahmood, T. A., Reid, F., . . . Aiken, C. (2015). Obstetrics: Prepare for the MRCOG: Key articles from the Obstetrics, Gynaecology & Reproductive Medicine journal. Elsevier Ltd. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?id=DcqqCgAAQBAJ

Murray, M. (2007). Antepartal and intrapartal fetal monitor. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company, LLC. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?id=_4jYJUGG56cC

Murray, M., & Huelsmann, G. (2008). Labor and delivery nursing: Guide to evidence-based practice. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?id=q22jEEZo7rwC

Navaratnam, K., Ulaganathan, P., Akhtar, M. A., Sharma, S. D., & Davies, M. G. (2011). Posterior uterine rupture causing fetal expulsion into the abdominal cavity: A rare case of neonatal survival. Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2011. Retrieved from http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criog/2011/426127/

Payne, J. (Ed.). (2015, Mar 17). Uterine rupture. Retrieved from Patient: http://patient.info/doctor/Uterine-Rupture

Applying medical research to clincial realities

Isabel recently asked over on Uterine rupture rates after 40 weeks:

“I wonder however if there are studies that compare the method of induction. My Doula said that the increase rates of uterine/ scar rupture was due to using high dosages of Pitocin, but now the induction uses lower dosages and administered at longer intervals. Do you know something about this?
Thank you”



Great question.

A few factors to consider:

1. Induction protocols can vary by provider, including some providers who don’t induced planned VBACs at all.
2. Induction guidelines can vary by hospital.
3. Women can react to the same drug/dose differently.
4. Some studies do compare the uterine rupture rates among spontaneous, induced, and augmented planned VBACs.

Medical studies on induction are only relevant to your situation if your provider follows the same protocol outlined in the study. However induction protocols are often not spelled out in detail unless that is the focus of the study.

When reading medical research, make special note of the sample size. We need ample participants in order to accurately capture and report the incidence of uncommon events such as uterine rupture. I typically like to see at least 3,000.  

Also remember that it’s ideal to have a experimental group (who receives the induction protocol) and a control group (who does not receive the induction protocol) in order to measure the difference in outcomes, such as fetal distress, uterine rupture, hemorrhage, cesarean hysterectomy, etc. Ideally, we would have a couple thousand, at least, in the experimental and control group.

In terms of the trend that induction now uses lower dosages and is administered at longer intervals, that may be true in some practices, but I would always confirm and not assume.

Anecdotally, I have heard a wide range of induction protocols reported just as research has identified similar variations among cesarean and episiotomy rates that are not linked to medical indication. This California Healthcare Foundation infographic clearly illustrates how hospitals differ:

Tale of Two Births

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In terms of specific studies comparing the method of induction, the first resource that comes to mind is the Guise 2010 Evidence Report.

Search for the word Cytotec and there is a discussion comparing rates of rupture by Pitocin, prostaglandins, and Cytotec.

Pitocin is associated with the lowest rate of rupture among the chemical agents which is likely why ACOG (2010) recommends Pitocin and/or Foley catheter induction in planned VBACs when a medical indication presents. (Learn more about what the Pitocin insert actually says.)

There may be more recent studies out there. Google Scholar is a good place to start. You can often obtain the full texts of medical studies at your local library, university, or graduate school.

Also, if you subscribe to Evidence Based Birth’s newsletter, she will email you a crash course on how to find good evidence.

I hope this helps!


What is the induction protocol at your facility? Does it differ for those with a prior cesarean? Let me know in the comment section.


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2010). Practice Bulletin No. 115: Vaginal Birth After Previous Cesarean Delivery. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 116 (2), 450-463, http://dhmh.maryland.gov/midwives/Documents/ACOG%20VBAC.pdf

California Healthcare Foundation. (2014, Nov). A Tale of Two Births: High- and Low-Performing Hospitals on Maternity Measures in California. Retrieved from California Healthcare Foundation: http://www.chcf.org/publications/2014/11/tale-two-births

Guise, J.-M., Eden, K., Emeis, C., Denman, M., Marshall, N., Fu, R., . . . McDonagh, M. (2010). Vaginal Birth After Cesarean: New Insights. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US). Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK44571/

Friedman, A. M., Ananth, C. V., Prendergast, E., Alton, M. E., & Wright, J. D. (2015). Variation in and factors associated with use of episiotomy. JAMA, 313(2), 197-199. Retrieved from http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=2089343

Kozhimannil, K. B., Arcaya, M. C., & Subramanian, S. V. (2014). Maternal Clinical Diagnoses and Hospital Variation in the Risk of Cesarean Delivery: Analyses of a National US Hospital Discharge Database. PLoS Med, 11(10). Retrieved from http://journals.plos.org/plosmedicine/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.1001745

New Research on Home Birth with an Obstetrician

male-doctor-thumbs-up-squareOver the last five years Dr. Stuart Fischbein, a Southern California obstetrician, has attended 135 home births. These deliveries included VBACs, vaginal breech and vaginal twin deliveries.

A summary of these births has been recently published.

Here are some highlights along with a few additional resources I compiled where you can learn more.

On patient selection:

“This model was not limited by strict protocols and allowed for guidelines to be merely guidelines. Women over 35, VBAC, breech and twin pregnancies were not excluded from this series simply because those labels existed. Each client was evaluated on her own merits and the comfort of the practitioner.”

On informed choice and the limitations of hospital birth:

“Home birth is not for everyone but informed choice is. The patronizing statement, “home delivery is for pizza”, is unprofessional and has no place in the legitimate discussion. Some suggest making hospital birth more homelike. While this may be a beginning and deserves investigation, it fails to recognize the difficult balance between honoring normal undisturbed mammalian birth and the reality of the hospital model’s legal and economic concerns and policies.”

On collaborative care:

“Pregnant women deserve to know that midwifery style care, both in and out of hospital, is a reasonable choice. A collaborative model between obstetrician and midwife can provide better results than what is occurring today.”

On lost skills:

“It would be wise to put the constructive energy of our profession towards the training of future practitioners in the skills that make obstetricians truly specialists such as breech, twin and operative vaginal deliveries.”

On the growth of home birth:

“Home birth will continue to grow as educated women realize that the current hospital model has many flaws.”

On our ethical obligation to provide a smooth home to hospital transfer:

“Cooperation, respect and smooth transition from home to hospital honors the pregnant woman and is our ethical obligation.”


California Healthcare Foundation. (2014, Nov). A Tale of Two Births: High- and Low-Performing Hospitals on Maternity Measures in California. Retrieved from California Healthcare Foundation: http://www.chcf.org/publications/2014/11/tale-two-births

Fischbein SJ (2015) “Home Birth” with an Obstetrician: A Series of 135 Out of Hospital Births. Obstet Gynecol Int J 2(4): 00046. DOI: 10.15406/ogij.2015.02.00046. Retrieved from Obstetrics & Gynecology International Journal: http://medcraveonline.com/OGIJ/OGIJ-02-00046.pdf

Johnson, N. (2010, Sept 11). For-profit hospitals performing more C-sections. Retrieved from California Watch: http://californiawatch.org/health-and-welfare/profit-hospitals-performing-more-c-sections-4069

Kennedy, M. (Director). (2015). Heads Up! The Disappearing Art of Vaginal Breech Delivery [Motion Picture]. Retrieved from http://www.informedpregnancy.com/#!heads-up/cef1

Klagholz, J., & Strunk, A. (2012). Overview of the 2012 ACOG Survey on Professional Liability. Retrieved from The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists: http://www.acog.org/-/media/Departments/Professional-Liability/2012PLSurveyNational.pdf

What I told the California Medical Board about home VBAC

california state seal

A little backstory

Back in October, I attended my first Interested Parties Meeting held by the Medical Board of California regarding new midwifery regulations as required by AB1308. (Read more about AB1308 here and here.)

Up for discussion was which conditions or histories among women seeking a home birth with a Licensed Midwife (LM) should be required to obtain physician approval.

A prior cesarean was on the list of over 60 conditions or histories and home VBAC was the one subject that generated the most comment and discussion that day.

What does AB1308 mean in terms of home VBAC in California?

There has been a lot of confusion regarding what AB1308 means in terms of home VBAC in California. In an effort to clear things up, Constance Rock-Stillman, LM, CPM, President, California Association of Midwives said this on January 23, 2014:

AB 1308 went into effect on 1/1/14, but there is nothing in the new legislation that says LMs cannot do VBACs.

LMs can do VBACs.

We just need to define in our regulations what preexisting conditions will require physician consultation. [Which is what the October 15 and December 15th Interested Party meetings were about.]

Until the new regulations are written LMs should continue to follow their current regulations which only require LMs to provide certain disclosures and informed consent to clients.

Please let the community know that if they want to have a say in whether or not VBACs with California LMs require a physician consultation, they should come to the Interested Parties meeting that the medical board will be holding and tell the board how they feel about it.

The medical board is a consumer protection agency, so they need to hear what consumers want to be protected from.

We will let you know as soon as the meeting is scheduled.

[Ms. Rock-Stillman responds when questioned by those who have not been involved it the creation of this legislation yet insist this legislation removes the option of home VBAC entirely:]

I’m in my third year as president of the California Association of Midwives, and I’m a practicing Licensed Midwife.

I have been at every Midwifery Advisory Counsel meeting and at the Capitol 30 times last year.

I’ve spoken in legislative committee hearings.

I’ve sat in weekly meetings with CAM’s legal counsel who worked side-by-side with us on the legislation.

I’ve been in Assemblywoman Susan Bonilla’s boardroom with ACOG and at every one of the public events where Susan Bonilla promised that the LMs would still be able to do VBACs.

So I think I qualify as a knowledgeable stakeholder in this issue.

Yes, we intentionally left VBAC out of the list of prohibited conditions, so at this point there is no question as to whether or not we can do VBACs. The only part that’s in question is whether or not all VBACs will require physician consultation.

Regulations that clarify under what circumstances physician consultation will be required will be written by the California Medical Board.  This is a process that takes time. Maybe even a year or more.

The regulations that will be adopted will be based on evidence and input from all the stakeholders.

This is why I think it’s so important that midwives and consumers be at the meetings to insure their voices get heard.

At the last Interested Parties meeting that the medical board held, I asked what we were suppose to do until the new regulations are written and we were told that we should follow our current regulations and our community standards until new regulations are adopted.

Why I attended

My intention in attending the October 15, 2014 meeting was to amplify the voice of the consumer.  I think sometimes it’s difficult for OBs who attend VBACs, or for those who live in communities where they have access to hospitals that attend VBAC, to understand that not everyone lives in that world.

Some live in a world where if they want a VBAC in a hospital with a supportive midwife or doctor who takes their insurance, that means driving over 50 miles each way for prenatal care and delivery while they literally drive by other facilities that offer labor and delivery, but ban VBAC.

Or it means acquiescing to a unnecessary repeat cesarean whose risks compound with every surgery. Or it means planning an unassisted birth which comes with its own set of risks. This is a tremendous burden.

As VBAC and repeat cesarean both carry risks and benefits, and women are the ones who bear and endure those risks, they should be the ones who choose which mode of delivery is acceptable to them.

I celebrate when women have access to supportive hospital-based practitioners.  But the reality is, many women do not enjoy that privilege and yet they still wish to avoid the serious complications that come with each cesarean surgery.

Who else was at the meeting?

Other people in the room included the Senior Staff Counsel of the Medical Board, an OB-GYN representing ACOG, an ACOG lobbyist, Constance Rock-Stillman along with many other CAM representatives and midwives, California Families for Access to Midwives, a few other consumers, and me.

Senior Staff Counsel was tasked with writing these regulations and as the meeting progressed, items were reworded or removed from the list.

My statement

Only having five minutes to speak means that as soon as you take your seat, adjust the microphone, and look into the eyes of Medical Board, you have to establish yourself as a credible source.

And then you start to speak. You have to be clear and concise with an unwavering voice. The Medical Board is your captive audience and you need to use every second weaving the facts with the personal experiences of mothers, midwives, and doctors so you can convey the whole story.

Often Medical Boards are not well versed on Licensed Midwives, home birth, and the politics of VBAC, so there is a lot of education that has to quickly happen in a few short minutes. You must maximize your time and, while talking at a normal pace, swiftly move from fact to fact continually highlighting yet another piece of evidence that supports your case.

Those that sit on Medical Boards often have access to whatever medical care they need. So sharing the challenges real families throughout the state face when trying to obtain a VBAC is crucial.

With all those factors in mind, I focused on the importance of VBAC access, the politics of hospital VBAC, and the public health implications if families can’t access VBAC.

Throughout my entire presentation, I emphasized how increasing VBAC access was aligned with the mission of the Medical Board: to protect consumers.

It was quite challenging to adequately convey these key points in such a brief format. But as I looked into the eyes of each board member during my presentation, I felt heard. I knew they were receiving the message I intended and that all the hard work that went into preparing for that day made a difference.

Legislative consulting is yet another way that I serve the mission of VBAC Facts. To schedule a legislative consulting call, please click here.

Home VBAC threatened for California families

There has been a lot of confusion regarding AB1308, the legislation that went through at the beginning of this year in the state of California. It said that LMs were no longer allowed to attend home births some situations (such as breech, beyond 42 weeks gestation, etc) and other situations required a physician to sign off on the home birth.

It’s these regulations that are currently being written by the Medical Board with input from ACOG, CAM, CFAM, and VBAC Facts. It is under discussion whether a prior cesarean should be included on this list of conditions that would necessitate a physician’s approval in order for the woman to plan a home VBAC.

On October 15, 2014, I flew to Sacramento and attended a Interested Parties Meeting at the California Medical Board.  I spoke on behalf of California women who want home VBAC to remain an option in our state. You can read a summary of that meeting here and listen to a partial recording of the meeting here.

There is going to be another meeting on December 15th from 1-4pm in Sacramento (agenda) and I will be there once again representing consumers.  I will be preparing a short testimony.  If you are a California resident and would like to attend the meeting, please do.  If you can’t, but want your voice to be heard, please email me the following information:

1. Why home VBAC is important to you

2. Your name

3. Your county

More information from the California Association of Midwives and California Families for Access to Midwives


You need to talk to the doctor/midwife face-to-face

Trying to find a VBAC supportive health care provider can be (very, very) difficult process.  Understandably, some women choose to call various providers rather than meet with them face to face. This woman’s experience illustrates the pitfalls of this method.

While VBAC is not a household term, it should be a familiar one among an OB’s front office staff.  Perhaps this will prompt more providers to have a quick discussion with their staff about VBAC and maybe even pass out a copy of the Quick Facts page (high res PDF) so that everyone who interacts with patients has a basic working knowledge of the topic.

Of course, this is the experience of one mom at one OB’s office and certainly doesn’t reflect on all the dedicated and intelligent individuals who work at OB’s offices throughout the world… simply this one.

For tips on interviewing care providers, including how to present yourself and specific questions to ask, go here.


Well, GREAT little anecdote for you all… In my search for an OB who will at least consider a VBA2C I ended up talking to a lady office assistant via phone yesterday. It went as follows:

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Me: “Hi! *general convo* Is the doctor VBAC friendly?”

Lady: “Is she friendly?”

M: “No, will she consider a VBAC?”

L: “Um, what’s a VBAC?”

*I hear another nurse in the background, say ‘Yes, we do VBAC’*

M: “Wait, did she say you guys will do a VBAC?”

*Nurse in the background says to lady on the phone, ‘Wait, has she had a c-section?’*

L: “Um, have you had a c-section?”

M: “Yes, of course.”

L: “Oh, the other nurse said if you’ve had a c-section we can’t give you a VBAC.”

M: “Ok, I think you need to know, VBAC stands for Vaginal Birth After Cesarean. It would be impossible to have a VBAC without previously having had a c-section.”

L: “Oh! I didn’t know that!”

*general pleasantries and I hung up*


When you called your local health providers, what information did the front office staff share with you?  One mom said, “We’ve done surveys in Orlando by calling all the OB offices in town (I know, huuuge undertaking, right?!). We have been told vbac is illegal, that there is a 50% chance a baby will die, and all kinds of other outrageous statements, all from the person *answering the phone*.”

Resources for processing traumatic births and losses

A dear woman contacted me.  15 months after her cesarean, it was still hard for her to read my posts without crying.  This simply broke my heart.  She is not alone.  There are many women who carry the grief and pain of their traumatic vaginal or cesarean births or the loss of their baby.  Every. Day.

So I asked on Facebook for resources for women who are in the midst of the processing and grieving.  Here is the list.  If you know of more, whether they are on-line or in person groups, for free or a fee, please leave a comment.

None of these groups or individuals have been checked out or endorsed by VBAC Facts.  This is simply a list of resources for you to check out.

It saddens me to say this but there are individuals and groups who find and share the stories of loss moms in order to berate them.  Please be careful when sharing information on the internet as anything you post on-line can be easily shared with others outside your closed/private internet group.  There is no such thing as privacy on the internet.  Being anonymous and not providing your home address or identifying information are ways to get around this.


Stillbirthday has a comprehensive list of immediate resources (like crisis hotlines, books, and websites) and long term resources (like workshops and retreats.)

There are support groups for women who have experienced uterine rupture. Here is a list: http://www.honoredbabies.org/resource-center/grief-support.htm

I know there is one local to me (Renfrew county, Ontario, Canada) but it’s not available through the Internet.

Solace for Mothers

Barbara-ann Horner: I volunteer for Postpartum Support International and most moms who call experience a traumatic birth message me i can find more resources or chat if you’d like

ICAN, the International Cesarean Awareness Network, is awesome. You can go to their website ican-online.org and there’s a ton of info and local support groups to join. I joined one after experiencing a very traumatic cesarean section and it’s been so helpful in the healing process.

The Dunamas Center does a lot of work with birth trauma.

Merrell Holliman-Carlson: I am a leader of the Ocala Birth Network, we have a FB page and also monthly meetings, we are in Marion County, FL but have several online members who are out of state, we provide information and resources for expectant moms as well as a ‘safe’ outlet for traumatized moms. A lot of us have dealt with unnecesareans and bad inductions, some have VBAC’d and others hope to. You are MORE than welcome!

http://www.humanizebirth.org/ has some resources and you can contact the ladies running the page and have our story added to the campaign as well, there is also a facebook page and group for women to share their stories and talk to others who have been through traumatic birth events as well

BEBA clinic (Ray Castelino)

Babycenter has a “Disappointing Birth Experiences” board….

Online, I recently found the Birth Trauma Association. They’re wonderful! They also have a group on Facebook.

Jamie Bodily: I offer individual sessions in the St. Louis area but no group at this point.

I know Nancy Wainer offers group workshops in the Massachusetts  area. Janel Mirendah also works in group or individually on birth trauma, she did a workshop when she came to do a screening of The Other Side of the Glass.

Yes, Mother to Mother! “Mother to Mother – Postpartum Depression Support St. Louis.  Mother to Mother provides telephone support and encouragement to women with postpartum adjustment disorder (PPAD). Mother to Mother is the only service of its kind in the St. Louis metropolitan area. We serve all women in the state of Missouri and parts of Illinois, free of charge.”

@backline is a great resource. They have a free talkline for birth or miscarriage trauma.

Birthing From Within Birth Story. Listening is amazing.

Birthtalk in Australia!!! They do free group sessions in Australia (Queensland) & personal sessions (also via Skype for international). They are the best

There’s a Birth Crisis group, as well as a CBAC group out there, I know both those group owners and they work hard to keep it safe.

A lady I know who had a stillbirth at 36 weeks is on a site called www.facesofloss.com. “Faces of Loss, Faces of Hope: Putting a face on miscarriage, stillbirth and infant loss.”

Geneviève Prono: I have been helping women heal from a traumatic and difficult birth and prepare for another birth, for twenty years. I do in person and group sessions by skype and am currently writing a book and putting some programs in place. The site in French (apparently google translates it) www.chrysalidefrance.com. What brought me to this three c-sections followed by three VBACs.

Tiffany Hoffman: I do individual birth trauma resolution as well as those who have had difficult or disappointing birth experiences. I have also created a birth trauma workshop, so that women who don’t live here can travel for a weekend intensive to start the healing process. They also learn several ways to continue processing their experience and feelings on their own. My website is www.sacredbirthspace.com

Linda Llone Hinchliffe: Our Birth Choices group offer emotional support to anyone who needs it…

Birth Matters of Fort Wayne, IN offers a Traumatic Birth Healing/Healing for Birth class several times a year. From personal experience – it’s just what my husband and I needed.

There’s a group in Virginia called Mothers Healing Together.

Lexi Abeln: I facilitate a free support group in Camp Hill, PA called Birthlight.

Birth after Caesarean Support and Information Group in Townsville, Queensland, Australia

Canaustralia.net — Empowering birthing women to make informed decisions about childbirth after caesarean

There’s a yoga studio local to me in Pittsburgh, PA that does a traumatic birth workshop.

Precious sleeping angles – group on Facebook

Stillbirth support – group on Facebook

Resources for men

Grieving fathers – group on Facebook

You can also following the two threads I posted on my Facebook profile page and fan page about this for more information or to contact the individuals above who offer counseling.

Do you have a resource you would like to add to the list? Please include it in the comments.

Induction is wrong, wrong, wrong… wait, what?

I hear all the time how induction in VBAC is contraindicated. This is false. This is the kind of misinformation that materializes when we demonize all induction rather than specifying that elective inductions are not worth the increased risks.

It’s important to use clear, specific language when we talk about birth because there is a lot of confusion among moms, advocates, doulas, and health care providers about VBAC and induction. When I point out the lack of clarity many people have on the topic to “anti-induction advocates” (for the lack of a better term), they respond with the fact that their focus is warning moms about elective inductions, which is absolutely needed. And they genuinely believe that people are aware of the distinction between elective and medically-indicated inductions. However, that has not been my experience, in fact it’s been quite the opposite.  There are many people who don’t understand the why, when, and how of inducing VBACs and that is impacting the abilities of women to make informed decisions and exercise their right of patient autonomy.

First, you can induce VBACs

To be clear, medically indicated induction in a VBAC is not contraindicated! Yet, many, many, many people persist that it is citing ACOG (1) and the Pitocin insert (2). ACOG clearly says in their latest VBAC guidelines (3) that “induction remains an option” in a mom planning a VBAC via Pitocin or Foley catheter. The Pitocin drug insert (2) does state, “Except in unusual circumstances, oxytocin [Pitocin] should not be administered in the following conditions” and then lists “previous major surgery on the cervix or uterus including cesarean section.” However, despite conventional wisdom, a prior cesarean is not listed under the contraindications section.  Further, the drug insert recognizes the value of individualized care:

The decision [to use Pitocin in a woman with a prior cesarean] can be made only by carefully weighing the potential benefits which oxytocin can provide in a given case against rare but definite potential for the drug to produce hypertonicity or tetanic spasm.

This is in line with ACOG’s latest VBAC recommendations (3) where they say, “Respect for patient autonomy supports the concept that patients should be allowed to accept increased levels of risk…” So this is information a woman can use to make an informed decision if she is faced with a medical condition that requires sooner rather than later delivery of her baby, but not necessarily in the next 15 minutes.  To induce, have a cesarean, or wait for spontaneous labor when facing a true medical issue is a decision for the mom to make in conjunction with her supportive heath care provider based on the evidence of her risks, benefits, and options.

My point is, if you just read bits and pieces of the insert, or a few key quotes from an anti-induction article, you are going to miss the full story; much like how reading the full text of a study gives you context and details that you lack by just reading the abstract.  Read my article (4) for more information on inducing VBACs.

Yet, misinformation persists

Ok, so now you know that induction remains an option per the Pitocin insert, ACOG, and respect for patient autonomy.  Now check out these quotes, from the last couple days, from six different people. If I were to keep a list of comments like these, just referring to induction and VBAC for a month, I would literally have dozens if not hundreds.  Misinformation is rampant:

“pitocin is CONTRAINDICATED for vbac bc the risk of uterine rupture”

“I thought it was unsafe to use pitocin with a vbac.”

“vbac should never be induced!”

“It is unsafe for prev surgical births. It says so in the PDR, or at least it did.”

“Not supposed to induce with a VBAC.”

“Never never never have an induction, especially with any kind of vbac!! Oh my goodness. it drastically raises your chances of uterine rupture!! Holy toledo. If you don’t know the risks involved with inductions, especially in vbacs, don’t offer the advice! Smh. Pitocin is completely contraindicated for vbacs, I’m pretty sure it even says that on the insert.”

“Are you actually trying to argue that induction of labour on a VBAC is OK???WOW…that is not evidence based AT ALL. Every study that has been done comparing the two shows a clear rise in risk associated with induction of labour and rupture. I am ALL for choice no matter the case, but I think every women has a right to INFORMED choice and you clearly are not. UNLIKE.”

Note the tone of these comments.  There is no room for negotiation.  Do you get the sense that they are just referring to elective inductions or all inductions? The message I get from these comments is loud and clear: these individuals believe that VBACs should not be induced. Period.

“Well, I would choose an induction…”

What is especially ironic is that some women who speak this way in public, privately share with me, that they themselves would opt for an induction over a repeat cesarean. Though do you see room for that option in any of the comments above?  They preserve that choice for themselves and yet pound the party line that all induction is always wrong and publicly deny that option to other women… for what purpose?  To maintain ad nauseam that induction is an evil, evil thing? Yes, apparently that is the case.

The last person’s comment was in response to me sharing my article (4) and saying that induction with medical indication does and should remain an option for moms planing VBACs.  Her reply equates my actions of sharing this reality with advocating against informed choice. How is keeping women in the dark about their options supporting the notion of informed consent? That faulty logic deserves a capitalized “WOW” with excessive exclamation points.

This is not the first person to say something like this to me. People so staunchly (and incorrectly) maintain that VBACs should never be induced because they have been indoctrinated to believe that induction is always wrong, it always introduces more risks.

More risk than what?

But the key question is: More risk than what? That is always what women should ask.

More risk than having a fetal demise before labor, partial placental abruption, or serious uterine infection and remaining pregnant? OK, so let’s say that is the truth.

Then any time any scarred woman has any of those medical conditions as well as those listed in my article (4), and they agree that remaining pregnant has higher risks that delivering the baby, they should have a cesarean, right? Even if vaginal birth remains an option, albeit via an induced labor?  Even if baby needs to be born sooner rather than later, but not necessarily in the next 15 minutes?  Those moms shouldn’t have a choice, they shouldn’t have a say, they should just go straight to cesarean?  How is that preserving choice for women?

Don’t misrepresent the facts

That is what these (extreme) “induction is wrong” proponents don’t understand. Induction has its place, as does every other medical intervention, and if you want to go straight to cesarean, rather than having a medically-indicated induction, fine.

But don’t misrepresent the truth to other women.

Don’t misrepresent what ACOG (1) or the Pitocin insert (2) says.

Don’t misrepresent the risks of Pitocin by listing a mish-mash of complications with no rates.  (How are women to understand the risks if you don’t tell them how frequently those emergencies occur?)

Don’t say things that can be disproved with a single mouse click like inducing VBACs is against evidence based medicine.

Don’t undermine a woman’s legal right to autonomy (5) by perpetuating the myth, that all induction, including when medically indicated, is wrong, wrong, wrong.

Don’t dictate specific actions while withholding facts that would enable women to make their own decisions, even if they are different that what you would prefer.

Medically indicated induction = choice

People don’t appreciate that standing for medically indicated induction is standing for women to have a choice: induction vs. repeat cesarean. Without induction, there is no choice when a valid medical reason presents. By eliminating the option of induction, women are mandated to the increasing risks (6) of repeat cesarean. And yet people who persist in their agenda say things like this to me (naturally, the following was asserted after I shared my article (4) and they didn’t read it),

Does inducing a VBAC increase the chance of rupture??? YES. Does a women, and should a women have the right to choose that irregardless of that FACT??? YES. Is the most important thing informed consent?? I believe it is.

Clear language provides clarity

So if people think that, then they should use clear, unambiguous language like, “Induction remains an option when a medical indication presents” or “Elective induction isn’t worth the increased risks” rather than flat out declaring “pitocin is contraindicated” (false) and claiming that induction in a VBAC is not evidenced based (false) as this very commenter did earlier in the thread. If someone maintains that it should be a woman’s choice, then they should share substantiated facts, context, statistics, and references, not erroneous blanket statements.

Women can make informed decisions only when they are informed

To provide information supports choice and informed consent. To dictate a specific action while misrepresenting the evidence eliminates choice and prohibits informed consent . I do not dictate to other women what they should do (7).

If you read my article (4), you will see that I list the reasons for medically indicated induction as well as provide an extensive review of studies illustrating the increased risk of uterine rupture. I do this rather than simply saying, “the risk of rupture is higher and thus you shouldn’t do it” because providing facts with context puts the choice in the hands of the mom, rather than me (or anyone else) dictating to her what she should do.

Some women will accept that higher rate of rupture in order to have a vaginal birth. Others will choose to accept the risks of a repeat cesarean section. Those are choices for women to make for themselves based on facts, not on misrepresentations of what other women (incorrectly) think is contraindicated.

“Induction is wrong” & patient autonomy

People who advocate that “induction is always wrong” don’t understand the implications of their assertions. By arguing against inductions, which in the minds of many include medically indicated inductions since no distinction is made, they are effectively advocating for more cesareans and against informed consent and patient autonomy. The mission of VBAC Facts is to make hard-to-find, interesting, and pertinent information relative to post-cesarean birth options easily accessible to the people who seek it. I advocate for informed consent and patient autonomy and that is why I share evidence (4) rather than dictating what others should do. I only hope that this reasoning and evidence based position spreads because there are far to many people out there who persist in the inaccurate philosophy that inductions in a VBAC are always wrong even in the face of a valid medical reason. This does not support choice, women, or birth.

I profusely apologize for the excessive underlining in this article, but I think you will agree, that it was absolutely necessary.


1. Kamel, J. (2010, Jul 21). ACOG issues less restrictive VBAC guidelines. Retrieved from VBAC Facts: http://vbacfacts.com/2010/07/21/acog-issues-less-restrictive-vbac-guidelines/

2. JHP Pharmaceuticals LLC. (2012, Sept). Pitocin official FDA information, side effects and uses. Retrieved from Drugs.com: http://www.drugs.com/pro/pitocin.html

3. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2010). Practice Bulletin No. 115: Vaginal Birth After Previous Cesarean Delivery. Obstetrics and Gynecology , 116 (2), 450-463. Retrieved from Our Bodies Our Blog: http://www.ourbodiesourblog.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/ACOG_guidelines_vbac_2010.pdf

4. Kamel, J. (2012, May 27). Myth: VBACs should never be induced. Retrieved from VBAC Facts: http://vbacfacts.com/2012/05/27/myth-vbacs-should-never-be-induced/

5. Kamel, J. (n.d.). Legal stuff. Retrieved from VBAC Facts: http://vbacfacts.com/category/vbac/legal-stuff

6. Kamel, J. (2012, Dec 9). Why cesareans are a big deal to you, your wife, and your daughter. Retrieved from VBAC Facts: http://vbacfacts.com/2012/12/09/why-cesareans-are-a-big-deal-to-you-your-wife-and-your-daughter/

7. Kamel, J. (2012, Dec 7). Some people think I’m anti-this/ pro-that: My advocacy style. Retrieved from VBAC Facts: http://vbacfacts.com/2012/12/07/some-people-think-im-anti-thispro-that-my-advocacy-style/


Evening primrose oil: “Don’t use it if you are pregnant?”

Note: After I published this article, it came to my attention that there was one other study on the oral use of EPO in pregnant woman.  You can read more about this second study in the comments section below.


Many moms and midwives use evening primrose oil (EPO) for cervical ripening. So I was absolutely shocked at the complete lack of evidence on the effectiveness and safety of EPO use among pregnant women. There is one study that examined the oral use EPO and it’s ability to ripen the cervix during pregnancy. It concluded EPO didn’t work as we expected it to and further, women who took EPO were more likely to experience a whole host of complications. Shockingly, there are no studies on the vaginal use of EPO and it’s effect on ripening the cervix during pregnancy. In short, there is insufficient clinical evidence documenting the risks and benefits of EPO and without that information, should pregnant women take it?

The two studies that have examined cervical ripening via oral EPO

Paula Senner gives an excellent review of this single study in her Quantitative Research Proposal entitled, “Oral Evening Primrose Oil as a Cervical Ripening Agent in Low Risk Nulliparous Women” (emphasis mine),

A study by Dove and Johnson (1999) investigated the use of evening primrose oil on the length of pregnancy and selected intrapartum outcomes at an American free-standing birth center in low-risk nulliparous women. More specifically, the study examined the effect of oral evening primrose oil on length of pregnancy, length of labor, incidence of postdates induction, incidence of prolonged rupture of membranes, occurrence of abnormal labor patterns, and cesarean delivery.

A two group retrospective quasiexperimental design was conducted on a sample drawn from the records of all nulliparous women at a free-standing birthing center over a seven year period from 1991 to 1998. All of the records were screened for accurate gestational age dating, cephalic presentation, low risk status and delivery between 38 and 42 weeks gestation. The study group consisted of 54 women who took oral evening primrose oil in their pregnancy (500 mg three times a day starting at 37 weeks gestation for the first week of treatment, followed by 500 mg once a day until labor ensued), and the control group was composed of 54 women who did not take anything. Antepartum and intrapartum records of all women were reviewed focusing on the above identified criteria.

Differences between measured variables of maternal age, Apgar score, birth weight, length of pregnancy, and length of labor were tested… Results showed no significant differences between the evening primrose oil group and the control group on age, Apgar score, or days of gestation (P>.05)… This retrospective chart review showed no benefit from taking oral evening primrose oil for the purpose of reducing adverse labor outcomes or for reduction of length of labor.

The study’s abstract gives us more details on the its findings (emphasis mine):

Findings suggest that the oral administration of evening primrose oil from the 37th gestational week until birth does not shorten gestation or decrease the overall length of labor. Further, the use of orally administered evening primrose oil may be associated with an increase in the incidence of prolonged rupture of membranes, oxytocin [Pitocin] augmentation, arrest of descent, and vacuum extraction.

The second study found that while women who took EPO experienced a greater degree of cervical ripening, that did not result in a shorter pregnancy or labor: “There was no significant difference in the interval from onset or end of treatment to onset of labor between the two groups” (Ty-Torredes, 2006).

So one study on oral EPO found that it doesn’t work as we thought it did and it offers considerable risks.  The other study found that it does result in some cervical ripening, but that did not translate into shorter pregnancies or labors.

As a result, a December 2009 article published in the American Family Physician recommended,

The use of evening primrose oil during pregnancy is not supported in the literature and should be avoided.

Medline Plus, a website published by the US National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health, published an April 2012 article on EPO.  Medline echoes the sentiments of the American Family Physician article when it said there was,

insufficient evidence to rate effectiveness for [EPO during pregnancy and] research to date suggests that taking evening primrose oil doesn’t seem to shorten labor, prevent high blood pressure (pre-eclampsia), or prevent late deliveries in pregnant women… [Further,] taking evening primrose oil is POSSIBLY UNSAFE [their emphasis] during pregnancy.  It might increase the chance of having complications. Don’t use it if you are pregnant [emphasis mine.]

Bleeding issues could complicate cesareans

Research on the use of EPO for other aliments among non-pregnant people has suggested there could be a possible association between the use of EPO and bleeding problems during surgery. As a result, Medline recommends that people don’t use it at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.

This poses a special problem for women using EPO during the last weeks of pregnancy. Since we cannot predict who will have a vaginal birth and who will have a cesarean, it is important to consider that EPO could contribute to hemorrhage during a cesarean and possibly even during a normal vaginal delivery. We just don’t know because there is a lack of data.

Dosages and mode of delivery

Another hole in the research and our knowledge relates to dosage.  I see women reporting an incredible range of dosages on the internet.  What is safe?  There are no clinical studies documenting how much women should take.  Maybe X dose of EPO is good, but Y dose introduces XYZ risks.  How long should women take EPO?  The last month of pregnancy?  The last two weeks?  (Remember, we just read how there is a possible bleeding issue.)  Should they take it twice a day or once a day?  Does the body absorb or metabolize EPO differently if it is administrated vaginally or orally?  Does it make a difference if the woman using EPO has a scar on her uterus?  Or multiple scars?  We just don’t know the answers to these questions.

What about our bodies’ innate ability to birth?

It comes down to the fundamental question: Do our bodies need something to help us go into labor? Many natural birth advocates reject the routine use of Pitocin augmentation during labor because they say our bodies know how to birth.  Yet it’s often women from this same mindset that use EPO. Either our bodies work as is, or they don’t.  Either we need something to help us go into labor – whether that is EPO or Pitocin – or we don’t.

Are we less leery of EPO because it comes from a flower?  Because midwives suggest it more than OBs?  Because we can purchase it over the counter?  Because it’s a pill, not an injection?  Because we can administer it to ourselves in the comfort of our home?  Because it’s not produced by “big pharma?”  Because it is used so routinely that no one questions it?  Or is it simply because we all assume since everyone takes it, the evidence must be on the side of EPO?

On (the lack of) evidence: Holding ourselves to the same standard

When I have shared the lack of evidence on EPO’s ability to ripen cervixes or prepare a woman’s body for labor, sometimes women reply with “But there is none [evidence] to suggest it won’t [help] either…….” American OBs used this same rationale when they induced scarred moms with Cytotec in the 1990s. There were no published medical studies on Cytotec induction in scarred women, so we didn’t know the risks and benefits. But people used it because we knew it caused uterine contractions. What can go wrong, right?

But the problem is, when there is a lack of clinical evidence on large populations of women, we are sometimes surprised with dire outcomes that no one could have predicted as was the case of Cytotec.  We cannot look back at that period and think, “How could they have done that” when we are now doing the same thing with EPO: using a chemical without evidence of its benefits and harms.

Some rail against “the medical system” because Pitocin/ultrasound/etc hasn’t been “proven safe,” yet we use EPO with no evidence that it does what we think it does, no evidence that it is safe, and the limited evidence we do have says that it’s associated with a variety of complications.

As Hilary Gerber D.O. aka Mom’s Tin Foil Hat says,

As someone who spent many years in the natural supplements industry, I agree that we need to hold natural products to the same scrutiny.

Also, most EPO is extracted with solvents like hexane. I am much more supportive of natural products or interventions that have been used in that form or method for generations (e.g. sexual intercourse at term, ingesting a substance that is a common food item, etc) than a chemically extracted, concentrated, unstudied substance.

Anecdote vs. evidence

OBs who used Cytotec on scarred women in the 1990s inevitably would have said, “I haven’t had a bad outcome yet,” and I suspect that many people who use EPO now would say the same thing.  When we have one woman who used EPO and had an arrest of descent, do care providers recognize that this could be as a result of the EPO?  When we have one women who used EPO and it worked as expected, how can we determine her labor progressed because of the EPO?

When you have a small sample size, it’s hard to make a connection.  It’s even more difficult to connect EPO to it’s possible list of complications when not many care providers are aware of the lack of evidence on EPO and the findings of this one lone study.  Is our limited experience, with relatively few patients, without meticulous record keeping that can detect patterns across groups of patients, sufficient evidence?  I don’t think so.  We would likely need thousands of women in order to create a sample size powerful enough to detect – or rule out – common and more rare EPO complications in addition to answering the many questions I posed above.

Take away message

I’m not saying to use EPO or not.  I’m simply pointing out how little we know about this commonly used substance and questioning if that should make a difference in how we view and/or use it.

There is limited evidence on EPO’s ability to ripen the cervix and aid with labor.  We have two studies on the oral use of EPO that looked at this question and none on the vaginal use of EPO among pregnant women.  This is reason enough to not use it.

We have no evidence on an appropriate or safe dosage (if that exists).

We have no evidence on the risks and benefits of oral vs vaginal administration.

In order to make the association between EPO and complications, care providers need to be aware of the complications with which EPO may be associated.

Let’s review the research that does exist.  One study found that EPO doesn’t ripen the cervix and poses considerable risk.  Another study found that EPO does ripen the cervix but those women did not go into labor sooner than the women that didn’t take EPO. We need more large studies to confirm or refute the notion that EPO = ripen cervix = shorter pregnancies. Without that information, we are using a product that we know very little about.


Bayles, B., & Usatine, R. (2009, Dec 15). Evening Primrose Oil. American Family Physician, 80(12), 1405-1408. Retrieved from http://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/1215/p1405.html

Dove, D., & Johnson, P. (1999, May-Jun). Oral evening primrose oil: its effect on length of pregnancy and selected intrapartum outcomes in low-risk nulliparous women. Journal of Nurse-Midwifery, 44(3), 320-4. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10380450

Gerber, H. (2012, November 13). Facebook comments on evening primrose oil.

McFarlin, B. L., Gibson, M. H., O’Rear, J., & Harman, P. (1999, May-Jun). A national survey of herbal preparation use by nurse-midwives for labor stimulation. Review of the literature and recommendations for practice. Journal of Nurse Midwifery, 44(3), 205-16. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10380441

Medline Plus. (2012, Apr 10). Evening primrose oil. Retrieved from Medline Plus: A service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine & National Institutes of Health: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/1006.html

Senner, Paula. (2003, December). Oral Evening Primrose Oil as a Cervical Ripening Agent in Low Risk Nulliparous Women. Retrieved from Frontier School of Midwifery and Family Nursing, Philadelphia University: http://www.instituteofmidwifery.org/MSFinalProj.nsf/a9ee58d7a82396768525684f0056be8d/f44c26c0836acbb585256dd1006b2a22?OpenDocument

Ty-Torredes, K. A. (2006). The effect of oral evening primrose oil on bishop score and cervical length among term gravidas. AJOG, 195(6), S30. Retrieved from http://www.ajog.org/article/S0002-9378%2806%2901323-8/fulltext

Wagner, Marsden. (1999). Misoprostol (Cytotec) for Labor Induction: A Cautionary Tale. Retrieved from Midwifery Today: http://www.midwiferytoday.com/articles/cytotecwagner.asp

False comparison: Fatal car accidents and VBAC

RETRACTION/ CORRECTION: I originally posted this article challenging the thought that you are more likely to die in a fatal car accident than during a VBAC.  I tried to crunch the numbers in the way that I felt most accurate.  However, it has been bugging me ever since because there is no accurate way to compare these two events and I should have emphasized that more. We can accurately and fairly compare the risks of VBAC to the risks of a repeat cesarean or the risks of a first time time mom.  However, it is a misleading to compare the risks of birth to non-birth events because they are to different.  While I did discuss this at great length at the end of this article, the title I originally chose (Myth: Mom more likely to die in car accident than VBAC) just continued to feed this false comparison.  I have since updated the article and title.  I apologize for any confusion I caused.


On fatal car accident statistics: There are many, many variables that factor into an individual’s risk of dying in a car accident.  The most accurate way to calculate your risk is by miles driven.  To learn more, please refer to the National Motorists Association’s document “Understanding Highway Crash Data.” I use the figures below in order to get an average rate for the purpose of discussion.

On terminology: Read why I use the term TOLAC.


Prepare yourself for yet another installation to the Birth Myth series.  I’ve heard this sentiment many times over the years and I’m sure you have too.   The well-meaning people who share this “statistic” simply desire to give moms seeking information on VBAC some encouragement:

If your husband is worried about you dying during a VBAC, tell him you are four times more likely to die in a car accident on your way home from work today.  Sorry if that sounds morbid, but the odds of the mother dying in a VBAC are truly minuscule.

Another article (filled with inaccurate statements, contradictions, and oodles of statistics without sources) recently making the rounds on Facebook says one of the risks of hospital birth is the 1:10,000 risk of a fatal car accident on the way to the hospital.

While these statements are very comforting, as birth myths tend to be, they are false comparisons.  We can accurately and fairly compare the risks of a TOLAC to the risks of a repeat cesarean or the risks of a first time time.  However, it is a misleading to compare the risks of birth to non-birth events.

Comparing unlike risks

Many birth advocates try to weigh the event of uterine rupture against other life events in an attempt to give context, but this is a misleading and inaccurate comparison.  Andrew Pleasant in his article entitled, Communicating statistics and risk, explains:

Try not to compare unlike risks.  For instance, the all-too-often-used comparison ‘you’re more likely to be hit by a bus / have a road accident than to…’ will generally fail to inform people about the risks they are facing because the situations being compared are so different.  When people assess risks and make decisions, they usually consider how much control they have over the risk.  Driving is a voluntary risk that people feel (correctly or not) that they can control.  This is distinctly different from an invisible contamination of a food product or being bitten by a malaria-carrying mosquito.

Comparing the risk of a non-communicable disease, for example diabetes or heart disease, to a communicable disease like HIV/AIDS or leprosy, is similarly inappropriate.  The mechanisms of the diseases are different, and the varying social and cultural views of each makes the comparison a risky communication strategy.

Take away message: Compare different risks sparingly and with great caution because you cannot control how your audiences will interpret your use of metaphor.

Comparing lifetime/annual risk to your risk of something happening over a day (or two)

Your annual or lifetime risk of something happening will often be higher than your risk of a birth related complication.  But this is because the annual risk of something measures your risk for 365 days.  The lifetime risk of something is often based on 80 years.  You are likely to be in active labor for one day, maybe two.  To compare the risk of something that happens over 1-2 days to the aggregate risk of something that could happen any day over 365 days or 80 years is unfair and confusing.

Look at something like your lifetime risk of breast cancer which is often quoted as 1 in 8.  So one could easily say, “Hey, I have a greater risk of breast cancer over my lifetime than I do have a uterine rupture!”  But, let’s look at this a bit more:

Again, I refer to Andrew Pleasant’s article, Communicating statistics and risk:

An oft-reported estimate is the lifetime breast cancer rate among women. This rate varies around the world from roughly three per cent to over 14 per cent.

In the United States, 12.7 per cent of women will develop breast cancer at some point in their lives. This statistic is often reported as, “one in eight women will get breast cancer”. But many readers will not understand their actual risk from this. For example, over 80 per cent of American women mistakenly believe that one in eight women will be diagnosed with breast cancer each year.

Using the statistic ‘one in eight’ makes a strong headline but can dramatically misrepresent individual breast cancer risk.

Throughout her life, a woman’s actual risk of breast cancer varies for many reasons, and is rarely ever actually one in eight. For instance, in the United States 0.43 per cent of women aged 30–39 (1 in 233) are diagnosed with breast cancer. In women aged 60–69, the rate is 3.65 per cent (1 in 27).

Journalists may report only the aggregate lifetime risk of one in eight because they are short of space. But such reporting incorrectly assumes that readers are uninterested in, or can’t comprehend, the underlying statistics. It is critically important to find a way, through words or graphics, to report as complete a picture as possible.

Take away message: Be extra careful to ensure your readers understand that a general population estimate of risk, exposure or probability may not accurately describe individual situations. Also, provide the important information that explains variation in individual risk. This might include age, diet, literacy level, location, education level, income, race and ethnicity, and a host of other genetic and lifestyle factors.

To compare events that are so different like the risk of a fatal car accident and the risk of TOL maternal mortality is inaccurate and doesn’t help moms understand their options.  Your risk of a car accident depends on how much you drive, when you drive, if you are distracted or on medication, etc, etc, etc.  The variables that impact your risk of dying during a  TOLAC are very different.  However, one way these two events are similar:  Sometimes we can make all the “right” or “wrong” decisions and the element of luck will sway us towards a good or bad outcome.

The problems with birth myths and false comparisons

False comparisons and birth myths like this are shared with the best of intentions.  So often the risks of VBAC are exaggerated for reasons having nothing to do with the health of baby and mom.  Birth advocates share these myths (which they believe to be true) as a way of boosting the morale of moms seeking VBAC as these moms are constantly faced with a barrage of unsupportive comments from family, friends, and even care providers.

The problem is, women make plans to have (home) VBAC/VBAMC based on these myths.  They make these plans because birth myths make the risk of VBAC, uterine rupture, infant death, and maternal death look practically non-existent.  That is dangerous.

Perpetuating these myths impedes a mom’s ability to provide true informed consent.  If a mom thinks her risk of uterine rupture is similar to a unscarred mom or a unscarred, induced mom, or less than her risk of getting struck by lighting or bitten by a shark, she does not have accurate picture of the risk.  And if she doesn’t understand the risks and benefits of her options, she is unable to give informed consent or make an informed decision.

Birth advocates get all up in arms about the mom who plans an elective, primary cesarean section without “doing her research.”  Or the mom who consents to an induction at 38 weeks because her OB “said it was for the best.”  Or when an OB coerces a mom into a repeat cesarean by saying the risk of uterine rupture is 15%.  Shouldn’t we be just as frustrated when moms plan (home) VBACs based on misrepresentations of the truth?  Shouldn’t we hold ourselves to the same standard that we expect from others?

The second problem with perpetuating these false comparisons and myths is that once women learn the true risks, they seem gigantic in comparison to the minuscule risk they had once accepted.  Now VBAC seems excessively risky and some loose confidence in their birth plans.  Birth advocates do not support moms by knowingly perpetuating these myths.  The reality is, the risks of VBAC are low.  We don’t need to exaggerate or minimize the benefits or risks of VBAC.  If we just provided women with accurate information from the get go, they would be able to make a true, informed decision.

The third problem is that we really look dumb when we say stuff like this.  If we want to be taken seriously, we really need to double check what we pass on.  I encourage you to ask for a source when someone says something that sounds to good to be true or just plain fishy.  (And hold me to the same standard!)  I often ask people for a source for their assertions… with varying results.

Sometimes people have a credible source available and share it with me.  I learn more and it’s all good.  Other times, people get angry.  They think I’m challenging them or trying to argue with them.  But the truth is, I’m just trying to learn. What I have found is, when people get angry, it’s sometimes because they don’t have a source and they are insulted that I didn’t accept their statement at face value.  They have just accepted what a trusted person told them as the truth and expect me to do the same.

Doesn’t it strike you as odd that some people encourage the continual questioning OBs and the medical system, yet expect you to accept what they say as The Truth no questions asked?   “Question everyone but me.”  Why?  Why is it when we question an OB, that’s a good thing, yet when we hold our birthy friends and colleagues to the same standard, that is being argumentative?  I say, ask for the source.  From everyone.

Take away messages

It is inaccurate and misleading to compare two events that are as different as a fatal car accident and TOL maternal mortality.  Period.

Let’s stop this false comparison and bring us back to what we should be comparing TOLAC/VBAC to: the risks of a repeat cesarean.

When women plan a VBAC based on false information,  their confidence can be shattered when they learn that the risk of uterine rupture and maternal death are much higher than they were lead to believe.

When women plan a VBAC based on false information, they are deprived of their right to informed consent.

While the risk of scar rupture is very different than the risk of a fatal car accident, it is similar to other serious obstetrical emergencies such as placental abruption, cord prolapse, and postpartum hemorrhage.


Guise J-M, Eden K, Emeis C, Denman MA, Marshall N, Fu R, Janik R, Nygren P, Walker M, McDonagh M. Vaginal Birth After Cesarean: New Insights. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No.191. (Prepared by the Oregon Health & Science University Evidence-based Practice Center under Contract No. 290-2007-10057-I). AHRQ Publication No. 10-E003. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. March 2010.   http://www.ahrq.gov/downloads/pub/evidence/pdf/vbacup/vbacup.pdf


For those who are interested in the reasoning and mathematics from the original article:

But, if we were going to compare the unlike risks of a fatal car accident and TOLAC, this is how I would do it: compare the daily risks of the events.

Maternal death and TOL

Per the report presented at the 2010 NIH VBAC conference entitled Vaginal Birth After Cesarean: New Insights (Guise, 2010):

Overall rates of maternal harms were low for both TOL [trial of labor] and ERCD [elective repeat cesarean delivery]. While rare for both TOL and ERCD, maternal mortality was significantly increased for ERCD at 13.4 per 100,000 versus 3.8 per 100,000 for TOL . . . The rate of uterine rupture for all women with prior cesarean is 3 per 1,000 and the risk was significantly increased with TOL (4.7/1,000 versus 0.3/1,000 ERCD).

Put another way, there is a 0.0038% (1 in 26,316) risk of maternal death during a trial of labor.  For a mom to die is very rare.

Risk of a fatal car accident

Of the 311,000,000 people living in the US (US Census, 2012), about 40,000 die annually (Beck, 2006) from car accidents in the United States which gives us a annual rate of 0.0129% (1 in 7,752).  (But remember, this is a very rough representation of the risk due to all the factors I previously mentioned.)

Many women look at this number and say, “See, you are more likely to die in a car accident than during a TOL.”

But remember, 0.0129% (1 in 7,752) is the annual rate of Americans dying due to car accidents.

To compare something like your annual risk of a fatal car accident to your risk of dying during a TOL is an unfair and inaccurate comparison.   It would be more accurate (though still a false comparison) to compare your daily risk of a fatal car accident (because most people travel in a car every day) to the risk of maternal death during a TOL because you are not in labor every day for a year.  Let me explain.

Comparing TOL maternal mortality to fatal car accidents

Often this false comparison is expressed as, “You are more likely to have a fatal car accident on the way to the hospital than have a uterine rupture or die during a VBAC.”  But the risk of a fatal car accident on the day you drive to the hospital is not 1 in 7,752.  That is your risk over a year.  We have to estimate your risk on that day you drive to the hospital by dividing 0.0129% by 365 days which equals 0.00003534% or 1 in 2,829,458.

No matter what stat we use from any study, the risk of maternal mortality during a TOL is much greater.  (But remember, this is a false comparison anyways!)

Guise’s data pegs the risk at 0.0038% or 1 in 26,316 which is 107.5 times greater than the risk of a fatal car accident as you drive to the hospital in labor.  This does not mean that the risk of dying during a TOL is so large, but rather our daily risk of a fatal car accident is so small that it’s literally theoretical.  (Read Kim James’ “Understanding obstetrical risk” for more.)

What about the risk of uterine rupture?

Using the 0.47% (1 in 213 TOLs) risk of scar rupture (Guise, 2010), the risk of a fatal car accident is 13,283 times smaller.

Why don’t we spread the risk of rupture/maternal mortality across the entire pregnancy?

After I initially published this article, someone left this great comment on Facebook:

I get this, but I also get why using annual stats of car accidents would be accurate when you are looking at uterine rupture rates themselves and not just during TOL, since a risk of rupture exists throughout pregnancy and not just during labor and mom would be pregnant for approximately 10 months or more.

I wondered about the best way to crunch the numbers because these events are so different and thus so difficult to compare.  In the end, it is a false comparison, but here was my original thinking….

Most Americans are in a car everyday, so they have that risk – no matter how small – every day unless they are not in a car in which case their risk is zero.  The risk is primarily associated with being in a car.

The risk of uterine rupture and maternal mortality is primarily associated with being in labor, so we can’t spread the risk of rupture/maternal mortality across the whole pregnancy because the risk of rupture/maternal mortality is not the same from conception to delivery.

One study examined 97% of births that occurred in the The Netherlands from 1st August 2004 until 1st August 2006 and found that 9% (1 in 11) of scar ruptures happened before the onset of labor. When we take 9% of the overall rate of scar rupture 0.64% (1 in 156) (including non-induced/augmented, induced, and augmented labors), we get a 0.0576% (1 in 1736) risk of pre-labor scar rupture and a 0.5824% (1 in 172) risk of rupture during labor (Zwart 1009). Since the risk of rupture is not the same over the entire pregnancy and labor, we cannot accurately calculate a daily risk of rupture.

In other words, the risk of rupture is rare before labor (0.0576% or 1 in 1736) and then becomes uncommon when labor begins (0.5824% or 1 in 172).  Even though we could go into labor anytime during pregnancy, the risk before we go into labor is so small in comparison to the risk when we actually go into labor.

Myth: VBACs should never be induced

Note: When I refer to a spontaneous labor, I mean a non-induced/augmented labor. Also, given that the risk of rupture increases with induction, a hospital is the best location for an induction.


Many of the comments left at the Forced Cesarean mom story questioned the safety of inducing a VBAC mom. Many people believe that is it excessively dangerous and that VBACs should never been induced or augmented. This is just not the case.

Spontaneous labor is always preferable to induced or augmented labor but there are medical conditions that can necessitate the immediate birth of a baby. It’s nice for those women for whom vaginal birth is still an option to have a choice: gentle induction/ augmentation or repeat cesarean. Of course, reviewing the risks and benefits of available options, including doing nothing, is essential. Some women might be more comfortable scheduling a cesarean whereas others might want to give a gentle Pitocin and/or Foley catheter induction a go.

ACOG’s stance on inducing VBACs

The latest 2010 VBAC Practice Bulletin No. 115 produced by the American Congress of Obstetricians & Gynecologists (ACOG) asserts:

Induction of labor for maternal or fetal indications remains an option in women undergoing TOLAC [trial of labor after cesarean]… However, the potential increased risk of uterine rupture associated with any induction, and the potential decreased possibility of achieving VBAC, should be discussed… Misoprostol [Cytotec] should not be used for third trimester cervical ripening or labor induction in patients who have had a cesarean delivery or major uterine surgery.

Stuart Fischbein MD, a vaginal breech/twins and VBAC supportive Southern California OB, recently shared this on my Facebook page,

According to ACOG, prior low transverse c/section is not a contraindication to induction (other than the use of Misoprostol [Cytotec]) so a Foley balloon or Pitocin may be used safely in these women. The problem arises when a practitioner does not believe in doing inductions on women with prior c/section. Despite the evidence and the ACOG clinical guideline the reality is that many doctors will just not want to deal with it.

“Many doctors will just not want to deal with it” for a variety of reasons including experiencing a recent uterine rupture or lawsuit and pressure from hospital administrators or other OBs in their practice. It’s good to know from the beginning if your care provider is open to a gentle VBAC induction and under what conditions they would recommend induction. (See below for the Mayo Clinic’s reasons for induction.) This is why I suggest asking care providers when you first meet with them: “Under what circumstances would you induce a VBAC?” and “What induction methods do you use?”

Medical reasons for induction

While many women are induced for non-medical reasons, such as being pregnant for 40 weeks and one day, there are many medical conditions where induction is a reasonable option. According to the Mayo Clinic’s article Inducing labor: when to wait, when to induce dated July 23, 2011:

Your health care provider might recommend inducing labor for various reasons, primarily when there’s concern for your health or your baby’s health. For example:

  • You’re approaching two weeks beyond your due date, and labor hasn’t started naturally
  • Your water has broken, but you’re not having contractions
  • There’s an infection in your uterus
  • Your baby has stopped growing at the expected pace
  • There’s not enough amniotic fluid surrounding the baby (oligohydramnios)
  • Your placenta has begun to deteriorate
  • The placenta peels away from the inner wall of the uterus before delivery — either partially or completely (placental abruption)
  • You have a medical condition that might put you or your baby at risk, such as high blood pressure or diabetes

ACOG’s 2009 recommendations on induction lists the following reasons:

  • Abruptio placentae [placental abruption]
  • Chorioamnionitis [infection in your uterus]
  • Fetal demise [baby has passed away]
  • Gestational hypertension
  • Preeclampsia, eclampsia
  • Premature rupture of membranes
  • Postterm pregnancy [after 42 weeks]
  • Maternal medical conditions (eg, diabetes, mellitus, renal [kidney] disease, chronic pulmonary disease, chronic hypertension, antiphospholipid syndrome)
  • Fetal compromise (eg, severe fetal growth restriction, isoimmunization, oligohydramnios)

Big babies & going overdue

ACOG’s latest VBAC Pratice Bulletin No. 115 states that going over 40 weeks or suspecting a “big baby” should not prevent a woman from planning a VBAC. I suggest asking your care provider at your first appointment about what they would recommend doing if you go past 40 weeks, past 42 weeks, or if they believe your baby is large. They may suggest a cesarean, a gentle induction, or they be open to waiting for spontaneous labor. Then you decide how you feel about their answer. If you decide that their answer is not a good fit for you, you can weigh that against the responses of other VBAC supportive care providers in your area.

Uterine rupture rates in induced/augmented labors

There are two primary factors when looking at uterine rupture during an induction: the drug and the dose. Keep in mind that while the risk of rupture generally increases as the dosage increases, two women can respond very differently to the same dose of the same drug. According to JHP Pharmaceuticals, LLC, the manufacturer of Pitocin,

Oxytocin has specific receptors in the myometrium and the receptor concentration increases greatly during pregnancy, reaching a maximum in early labor at term. The response to a given dose of oxytocin is very individualized and depends on the sensitivity of the uterus, which is determined by the oxytocin receptor concentration.

Additionally, they assert that Pitocin should not be used for induction without medical indication:

Elective induction of labor is defined as the initiation of labor in a pregnant individual who has no medical indications for induction. Since the available data are inadequate to evaluate the benefits-to-risks considerations, Pitocin is not indicated for elective induction of labor.

Many women point to the fact that the Pitocin drug insert states, “Except in unusual circumstances, oxytocin should not be administered in the following conditions” and then lists “previous major surgery on the cervix or uterus including cesarean section.” However, a prior cesarean is not listed under contraindications and the drug insert is clear:

The decision [to use Pitocin in a woman with a prior cesarean] can be made only by carefully weighing the potential benefits which oxytocin can provide in a given case against rare but definite potential for the drug to produce hypertonicity or tetanic spasm.

The elevated risk of rupture due to induction has been documented in several studies. Landon (2004) found that spontaneous labors had a 0.4% rate of rupture. That increased 2.5 times for induced labors (1.0%) and 2.25 times for augmented labors (0.9%).

Landon further broke out rupture rates by type of induction:

  • 1.4% (N = 13) with any prostaglandins (with or without oxytocin)
  • 0% with prostaglandins alone
  • 0.9% (n = 15) with no prostaglandins (includes mechanical dilation with a foley catheter with or without oxytocin), and
  • 1.1% (N = 20) with oxytocin alone.

Overall, they found 0.7% of women experienced an uterine rupture with an additional 0.7% experiencing a dehiscence.

Landon (2004) did a great job in providing rates of rupture per drug, but we don’t know the dose used in the induced/ augmented labors that ruptured versus those that didn’t rupture.

ACOG quotes a couple studies in their 2010 VBAC Practice Bulletin (emphasis mine):

One study of 20,095 women who had undergone prior cesarean delivery (81) found a rate of uterine rupture of 0.52% for spontaneous labor, 0.77% for labor induced without prostaglandins, and 2.24% for prostaglandin induced labor. This study was limited by reliance on the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision coding for diagnosis of uterine rupture and the inability to determine whether prostaglandin use itself or the context of its use (eg, unfavorable cervix, need for multiple induction agents) was associated with uterine rupture.

In a multicenter study of 33,699 women undergoing TOLAC, augmentation or induction of labor also was associated with an increased risk of uterine rupture compared with spontaneous labor (0.4 % for spontaneous labor, 0.9% for augmented labor, 1.1% for oxytocin alone, and 1.4% for induction with prostaglandins with or without oxytocin) (4). A secondary analysis of 11,778 women from this study with one prior low transverse cesarean delivery showed an increase in uterine rupture only in women undergoing induction who had no prior vaginal delivery (1.5% versus 0.8%, P=.02). Additionally, uterine rupture was no more likely to occur when labor induction was initiated with an unfavorable cervix than with a favorable cervix (91). Another secondary analysis examined the association between maximum oxytocin dose and the risk of uterine rupture (94). They noted a dose response effect with increasing risk of uterine rupture with higher maximum doses of oxytocin. Because studies have not identified a clear threshold for rupture, an upper limit for oxytocin dosing with TOLAC has not been established.

Induced labor is less likely to result in VBAC than spontaneous labor (44, 47, 92, 99). There is some evidence that this is the case regardless of whether the cervix is favorable or unfavorable, although an unfavorable cervix decreases the chance of success to the greatest extent (91, 100, 101). These factors may affect patient and health care provider decisions as they consider the risks and benefits of TOLAC associated with labor induction.

Given the lack of compelling data suggesting increased risk with mechanical dilation and transcervical catheters, such interventions may be an option for TOLAC candidates with an unfavorable cervix.

The Guise 2010 Evidence Report is another excellent resource that reviewed VBAC research published to date. It talks extensively about uterine rupture in induced births on pages 58 – 69 and concluded (emphasis mine):

The strength of evidence on the risk of uterine rupture with pharmacologic IOL [induction of labor] methods was low due to lack of precision in estimates and inconsistency in findings. The overall risk of rupture with any IOL method at term was 1.5 percent [1 in 67] and 1.0 percent [1 in 100] when any GA [gestational age] is considered. Among women with GA greater than 40 weeks, the rate was highest at 3.2 percent [1 in 31]. Evaluation of the evidence on specific methods of IOL reveal that the lowest rate occurs with oxytocin [Pitocin] at 1.1 percent [1 in 91], then PGE2 [prostaglandin E2] at 2 percent [1 in 50], and the highest rate with misoprostol [Cytotec] at 6 percent [1 in 17]. These findings should be interpreted with caution as there was imprecision and inconsistency in the results among these studies. The risk of uterine rupture with mechanical methods of IOL is understudied. Other harms were inadequately reported to make conclusions. Relative to women with spontaneous labor, there was no increase in risk of rupture among those induced at term. However, the available evidence on women with induced labor after 40 weeks GA indicates an increased risk compared with spontaneous labor (risk difference 1.8 percent; 95 percent CI: 0.1 to 3.5 percent). The NNH [number needed to harm] in this group is 56 (for every 56 women greater than 40 weeks GA with IOL during a TOL [trial of labor], one additional rupture will occur compared with having spontaneous labor).

So the bottom line is: more large, good quality studies that control for induction are needed.

What is too risky?

As ACOG (2010) states in their latest Practice Bulletin:

Respect for patient autonomy supports the concept that patients should be allowed to accept increased levels of risk, however, patients should be clearly informed of such potential increase in risk and management alternatives.

I agree and believe that each individual woman has the right to informed consent and, together with her care provider, can make the best decision for her individual situation. I think it’s hard to argue that women seeking VBA2C, home birth, or unassisted birth should have the right to accept the elevated levels of risk that come with those decisions and yet say that the elevated risk that comes with induced VBACs is unacceptable.

Keep in mind that while the risk of rupture is higher in an induced VBAC, the risk is similar to the risk of rupture in a VBA2C (0.9% per Landon 2006). So it’s hard for one to support VBA2C and yet demonize a VBA1C induced for medical indication by saying the risk of rupture is to high.

It is also important to note that 90 out of 91 Pitocin induced TOLACs do not rupture (Landon, 2004 & Guise, 2010). So while the risk is generally higher in induced/ augmented labors, the overall risk is still low and occurs at a rate comparable to other obstetrical emergencies.

Myth: Most ruptures occur in induced/augmented labors

It’s imperative that women seeking VBAC understand that the single factor that increases their risk of uterine rupture the most is their prior cesarean section. And while having your labor induced/augmented does increase your risk of rupture, please do not believe the myth that a spontaneous labor provides complete protection from uterine rupture.

To disprove this myth, I direct you to “the largest prospective report of uterine rupture in women without a previous cesarean in a Western country” which found that most ruptures occur in spontaneous labors (Zwart, 2009). Zwart differentiated between uterine rupture and dehiscence and found (emphasis mine):

of the 208 scarred and unscarred uterine ruptures, 130 (62.5%) occurred during spontaneous labor reflecting 72% of scarred ruptures and 56% of unscarred ruptures.

It is interesting to note that 16% of unscarred ruptures (representing 4 unscarred women) and 9% of scarred ruptures (representing 16 scarred women) happened before the onset of labor (Zwart, 2009).

What I would do

If there was a medical reason for my baby to born (as detailed by the Mayo Clinic above), and it was the difference between a VBAC and a repeat cesarean, and I had a favorable Bishop’s score (download the app), I would consent to a foley catheter and/or low-dose Pitocin induction (not Cytotec or Cervidil).

If I was induced or augmented with Pitocin, I would be comfortable with continuous external fetal monitoring. Some hospitals do offer telemetry which is wireless monitoring giving you more freedom of movement. I’ve even seen telemetry in tube tops (naturally I can’t find a link to it now, if you have a link, can you leave a comment?) and units that can be worn in birth tubs. It’s good to call the hospital beforehand to determine what kind of telemetry monitoring units they offer and to confirm that it’s not lost in a closet.

Final thoughts

There is no doubt that Pitocin is overused in America and often results in unnecessary emergency cesareans. However, it’s important not to cloud the two issues: medically unnecessary inductions and inductions with medical indication. There are situations where induction/ augmentation are reasonable and can give the mom one last option before having a cesarean. Thankfully, a low-dose Pitocin and/or foley catheter induction “remains an option” in women planning a VBAC according to ACOG. I think that is a good thing.

Further reading

What can you do when your hospital bans VBAC?

Amber recently left this comment on the Quick Facts page:

i am pregnant for the second time my first child was delivered by c-section my goal is to have my second child natural but the obgyns in my area will not allow someone who has had a c-section to have a natural birth they said it is hospital policy what would you recommend?


First educate yourself and then you can take action. You have many options.

I suggest you review the following documents and provide a copy to your health care provider: the most recent ACOG VBAC guidelines, the National Institute of Heath’s 2010 VBAC Statement, and the article VBAC ban rationale is irrational.

Next, read through the steps of planning a VBAC and familiarize yourself with the misinformation that some OBs have used to persuade women to schedule repeat cesareans, so if you hear these same lies, you can identify them: Another VBAC Consult Misinforms, Scare tactics vs. informed consent, VBACing against the odds, and A father says, Why invite the risk of VBAC?.

Additionally, it’s important to know that there are many birth myths rampant on the internet that misrepresent the primary risk of VBAC by minimizing the risk of uterine rupture such as “the risk of uterine rupture in a VBAC mom is similar to (or double) that of an unscarred mom’s risk,” or “the risk of uterine rupture in an induced, unscarred mom is the same as a VBAC mom,” or “a VBAC mom is more likely to be bitten by a shark or struck by lightning than have an uterine rupture.” Again, all these statements are false. And if you see a blog report really low uterine rupture or mortality rates, it’s likely the result of incorrect math.

On to your question. . . Unfortunately, I don’t have any personal experience of pursuing a VBAC in a VBAC ban hospital because I planned a home VBAC in order to avoid all that (almost certain) drama in the hospital. So, I went to my Facebook peeps and got their suggestions and they did not disappoint!

Here are their ideas in their own words…

1. Let hospital administrators and the board of directors know.

Mamas that are passing on a hospital because of their VBAC policy, need to then write the hospital administrators and the boards of directors to tell them that they birthed at XXX Hospital instead of theirs because of their VBAC policy. Hospitals need to hear that they are losing births (aka $$$) because of their policies.

2. Find an ICAN chapter near you.

She needs to get in touch with her closest local ICAN chapter TODAY. They will know details on the exact situation in her area. She should not put stock in what one person tells her- there is a lot of misinformation and myth out there. She can find both a local chapter and information about fighting a VBAC ban at www.ican-online.org

3. Sign a waiver and exercise your legal right to refuse surgery.

I had a VBAC at a hospital where no doctor staff supported it but low and behold all the nurses were amazing! I went in at 5 cm and 3 hours later baby was in my arms. Strong support is a must – I had a midwife, my husband, mom and sister. Stay focused. Don’t sign anything- except the refusal of c/section form- get in there and push your baby out!

and . . .

I would encourage her to ask to see this policy & ask if she would be allowed to sign a waiver. Ask friends if anyone they know has VBAC’d there or at another area facility. I had an experience in my last VBAC where I was told of a “policy” that didn’t really exist except in that person’s mind.

and . . .

Under the right to informed decision making she has the right to say “no thank you”. Absent a court order for a cesarean they cant force her. I’m not a huge fan of the “show up pushing” crowd, but it may appeal to her. Or she could labor in a nearby hotel with a midwife or montrice to monitor the baby and then go in to the hospital at the last minute. Again, not a fan but we’re looking at options here.

and . . .

Regarding stories of VBAC-ban hospitals. I don’t have experience myself, as my VBAC was done with a CNM at a supportive facility – but I’ve attended a VBAC at a local hospital with a VBAC ban. Mama had a RCS [repeat cesarean section] scheduled (though she didn’t intend on going in) but went into spontaneous labor 6 days prior. She labored at home several hours until contractions were about 3 minutes apart. When we arrived and they realized she had a previous c/s, they began calling in a team to prep the OR.

The mama was beyond calm – and in the middle of labor – requested to speak with the staff. The nurses (there were maybe 4 in there?), the attending OB, and the anesthesiologist (who had already been paged for the spinal for surgery) were in her room (ready to wheel her to the OR). Between contractions, she quickly and quietly explained that she was aware it wasn’t typical policy to attend a VBAC, but she was there and it was their legal duty to treat her and she was exercising her legal right to refuse unnecessary surgery.

The nurses looked shocked, the anesthesiologist said something about he was clearly not needed, and the OB (who I swear was VBAC accepting but just was staffed at a VBAC-ban hospital) told her that she was correct, they had to treat her and couldn’t force her to do anything unless her baby was in danger but she’d need to sign quite a bit of paperwork documenting the situation. He had the most odd grin/smirk on his face while he said that as if to somehow thank her for having the nerve to stand up for herself. He left the room and we didn’t see him again until she was crowning.

I in no way, shape, or form feel that that scenario is typical of a VBAC-ban situation, but it was certainly enjoyable and entertaining to have experienced that with my client.

and . . .

I just refused the c-section at a VBAC ban hospital. With my first, I pushed for 4 hours, and he didn’t get past the 0 station (he was presenting transverse) — We lived too far away from the hospital for a homebirth at our own home, but I hired the homebirth midwife for concurrent care. She was going to monitor us at a hotel near the hospital for labor, but thankfully everything went so fast we just met her at the hospital. She served as doula there. I found out from an OB nurse that one of the OBs did support a woman’s right to refuse (though not enthusiastically). I knew I needed care I could trust, so that the only c-section I got was medically necessary. You can read where my midwife tells our story here.

You have every right to refuse an unnecessary c-section, I’d just HIGHLY recommend laboring out of the hospital, and having a doula or knowledgeable advocate with you!

and . . .

This is my advice for VBACing at a banned hospital –

– Sign your informed refusal ahead of time, and be aware that when presented with the risks of VBAC, it will majorly underplay RCS risks; it might be a good idea not to bring your husband to this appointment if he’s feeling nervous about VBAC. [Or have your husband read this article beforehand.]

– Don’t let them give you a late term ultrasound for anything other than a medical problem (in other words — refuse the late ultrasound for size)

– Plan to labor out of the hospital; use a monitrice if you are nervous about that, or a good doula

– Have a smart advocate with you at the hospital so you don’t have to fight any battles yourself and can just focus on laboring

– Get good prenatal care — I did acupuncture and chiropractic, and both of those people had offered to help me in labor if I needed; having that support and belief was very empowering, because my OB absolutely didn’t think we “could” VBAC

– Own your decision; don’t be wishy-washy… be stubborn… this is YOUR BODY. I had a personal mantra that I repeated to myself over and over, “I will only have a medically necessary c-section.”

– Learn ways to get through labor naturally; I really liked the strategies in “Birthing from Within” — even more than hypno or Bradley techniques

– Show up in advanced labor (I was complete when we got to the hospital)

– Know your personal hang-ups — I pushed for 4 hours with my son and am SO GLAD that I labored down in a small bathroom until my urge to push was really strong and spontaneous; I am so glad I wasn’t on the bed pushing for a long time, because this would have brought back too many bad memories and made me feel panicky, tired, and out of control. When I got on the bed to push, I was practically crowning. THAT was very empowering for a “failure to descend” mama

To bottom line – do what you have to to get the care you need, even with limited options; own your body and decision, and give yourself every advantage and tool that you can to help ensure success.

and a VBAC supportive OB who worked in a VBAC ban hospital says:

I’m supposed to tell patients that they have to go elsewhere if they want a VBAC, that they can’t stay in their own community, that they have to drive 50 miles. … I’m not supposed to tell them that they have the option of showing up in labor and refusing surgery. The hospital actually put in writing that I should avoid telling them that. They’re telling me to skew my counseling, and they have no shame in doing so.

4. Ask a different person at the hospital.

Remember that not everyone is knowledgeable about VBAC or a specific hospital’s VBAC policy, even if they work at that hospital.

I have heard an OB tell a mother that her only option was repeat cesarean because the hospital didn’t allow VBAC. The director of Maternal Child Health said it absolutely wasn’t true and gave her the names of VBAC friendly providers.

5. Find another hospital via the VBAC Policies by US Hospitals database compiled by ICAN.

Remember you are buying a service. Why pay for something you don’t want. Shop elsewhere.

6. Find another provider and ask these questions.

7. Birth in another city, county, or state.

Know what you’re comfortable with, hire a doula as well as a midwife or doctor especially if you have a hospital birth, and do your research so you know your rights and options. I’m currently about to “relocate” to Seattle at 37 weeks, from Juneau, AK where there is a hospital VBAC ban at our one hospital in town so I can try to have a VBAC in a more supportive environment. I didn’t think I wanted to fight the VBAC ban while in labor, I’d rather do my political activism in a clearer state of mind! It has been a stressful journey but I know I’m doing what’s right for me so I’m feeling really good about things now. I know this isn’t an option for many and a few women since the beginning of 2011 have refused repeat c/s at our hospital. Good luck!

and . . .

Go somewhere else. . . I traveled 40 mins for my vbac in 2010 because the 6 hospitals around here wouldn’t let them either.

and . . .

I even know a family who crossed state lines to have her baby the way she desired because her states laws wouldn’t allow her.

Joy Szabo said

I found a sane doctor 5 hours away. I got slightly famous for it, too.

and I’ve heard of women traveling to Mexico to VBAC at Plenitude with Dr. José Luis.

8. Consider a homebirth.

Fighting the hospital system while trying to push out a baby is not a simple task. Yes, a support team can be a big help. Personally, I felt more comfortable staying home than going to the hospital with my boxing gloves. It’s a personal choice and she’ll have to see what she’s most comfortable with. At the end of the day, I played out both options in my mind and went with the one that I felt most at peace with.

and. . .

Hello, my personal story in a nutshell… iatrogenically necessitated c/s with my first. For #2, it was a last minute change of plans… I’m a physician and I discovered through the grapevine that OB was planning to resection me without medical indication so #2 turned into planned HBAC. Homebirth VBAC successful with my second. The second was so beautiful, so peaceful, so uncomplicated!

9. Connect with resources for more ideas.

Stratton, B. (2006). 50 Ways to Protest a VBAC Denial. Retrieved from Midwifery Today: http://www.midwiferytoday.com/articles/50ways_vbac.asp

A good closing thought:

The term “will not allow” always bothers me. Perhaps they “won’t attend a VBAC” but they definitely can not stop you. Stand up for your rights. Show them the ACOG recommendation which is to allow a trial of labor! Seek out support. Call every OB you can think of. Look into a midwife. Hire a doula. You can do this.

Do you have more ideas?

Did you deliver at a VBAC ban hospital?

What was your strategy?

Are you a health care provider at a VBAC ban hospital and have some insight?

A father says, Why invite the risk of VBAC?

I recently had an exchange with a father that I wanted to share because I think he has the same concerns as many other parents.

He first left a comment in response to the article I’m pregnant and want a VBAC, what do I do?

Make sure they have a surgical team ready to go 24-7 If you are attempting VBAC’S.

They have about 15 min’s to get the child out, without serious damage after complete uterine rupture. It won’t be a Bikini cut either.

I replied:


VBACs can absolutely be offered safely without 24/7 anesthesia present.  I had the opportunity to attend the March 2010 National Institutes of Health VBAC Conference where the ability of rural hospitals to safely attend VBACs was extensively discussed. One doctor spoke during the public comment period and stated that her rural hospital had a VBAC rate of over 30%! It turns out, if a hospital is supportive of VBAC and motivated, they can absolutely offer VBAC safely. (I also welcome you to read the commentary of two obstetricians and one certified nurse midwife who argued against the VBAC ban instated at their local rural hospital.) Read more about the policies that this hospital implemented: VBAC Ban Rationale is Irrational.

One large VBAC study found that while the risk of infant death or oxygen deprivation in VBACs was 0.05%, the maternal mortality in repeat cesareans was 0.04% (Landon, 2004). Whose lives do we save? And in fact Henci Goer’s analysis shares with us that the 0.05% rate is inaccurately elevated. In the Landon (2004) study, women whose babies had died before labor were encouraged to VBAC. Those infant deaths were included in the 0.05% figure even though their deaths could not be attributed to a labor after cesarean.

There was an entire lecture at the 2010 National Institutes of Health VBAC Conference about uterine rupture, oxygen deprivation and blood gases. You can find a summary in the Program and Abstracts.



Then he left a comment in response to the article A letter from a hospital explaining why they banned VBAC:

Well written letter by the physician. VBAC’s are very risky. I’ve lived through the personal horror of a catastrophe. And trust me it was catastrophic. I nearly lost my wife and full term son. My son now lives his life as a quadriplegic with Cerebral Palsy. You can’t convince me it’s worth the risk. Not for the child, not for the mother, not for the family, and not for the doctor and hospital.

Greedy insurance companies thought they could turn profits by forcing VBAC’s on mothers. The doctor’s letter is true to form and his statistics are on the money. If you care about people, mothers, babies, and family, “Don’t push for VBAC’S” do the opposite.

To which I replied:


I am so sorry about your son.  To describe what happened to your son as tragic is a drastic understatement.

I agree that the policies in place during the 90s when insurance companies were pushing VBAC were entirely unsafe. VBAC became required in some places and some women were not given a choice about whether or not to VBAC. This resulted in women with contra-indications to VBAC experiencing bad outcomes. Women in crowded hospitals did not receive good care and had bad outcomes. Women desiring trials of labor after cesareans were induced and had bad outcomes. And all of this resulted in VBAC getting a bad name. “Instead of blaming the overuse of induction, mandatory VBACs regardless of suitability, and mismanagement of labor, doctors began saying that it was actually VBAC that was unsafe.” You can read more on the history of VBAC here.

Fortunately, we know more now about the risks and benefits of VBAC and repeat cesareans than we did in the 90s. Like how rupture rates vary depending on the scar type (Landon, 2004), how the risks of cesareans increase with each surgery (Silver, 2006) and the risk of uterine rupture and other complications decrease after the first VBAC (Mercer, 2008). We know now that inducing increases the risk of uterine rupture (Landon, 2004), but that it is a reasonable option when there is a medical indication.  As the Guise 2010 Evidence Reports asserts,

“While rare for both TOL [trial of labor after cesarean] and ERCD [elective repeat cesarean delivery], maternal mortality was significantly increased for ERCD at 13.4 per 100,000 versus 3.8 per 100,000 for TOL. The rates of maternal hysterectomy, hemorrhage, and transfusions did not differ significantly between TOL and ERCD. The rate of uterine rupture for all women with prior cesarean is 3 per 1,000 and the risk was significantly increased with TOL (4.7 1,000 versus 0.3 1,000 ERCD). Six percent of uterine ruptures were associated with perinatal death. Perinatal mortality was significantly increased for TOL at 1.3 per 1,000 versus 0.5 per 1,000 for ERCD… VBAC is a reasonable and safe choice for the majority of women with prior cesarean. Moreover, there is emerging evidence of serious harms relating to multiple cesareans.”

So neither option is inherently safe or risky. Both offer a different set of risks. I think it’s important for women to understand these risks when considering their options. I wrote a summary here: Nervous About Planning a VBAC.

Once again, I’m so sorry about your son and I thank you for taking the time to leave your comment.



To which he replied:

Your statistics mean is nowhere near the mean quoted in the doctors letter. This doctor has performed how many births? and participated in many more. He travels around the country lecturing on this subject? His mean is 2.5% not .05%. .05% is risky too. But I believe 2.5% is more likely for for complications with VBAC.

Accidental death from cesarean he pegs at .001%. That’s .00001

To which I replied:


His statistics are wrong. That is why I posted the letter. I wanted to illustrate how important it is to educate yourself because some OBs just don’t know and give incorrect information either because they don’t know any better or because they are actively skewing their information.  Please read my comment on the differences between an OB’s opinion and medical research.

There is not one large study on VBAC that shows a fetal mortality rate of 1 in 200 (0.5%.) Please check out my bibliography. I’ve read all these studies. If you can find a study on VBAC including over 5,000 women, controlling for scar type, induction method and dose that shows an infant mortality rate of 0.5%, I would love to see it.



To which he replied:

I still agree with the doctor’s letter above. Why invite the risk? and it is way way too risky. How could the liability limits of a midwife, or small hospital possibly cover such a tragedy? Should that be handled by malpractice reform? By allowing our health professionals to be unaccountable? Recovery for even economic loss is nearly impossible today. The liability is tremendous. Childbirth is already risky enough. I agree that induction may be a contributing factor and maybe more research should be done on those drugs and their use. Cervadil was used to induce my wife, and it was contra-indicated at that time in women with a scarred uterus by “the Physicians Desk Reference”; but that didn’t stop it’s use. This catastrophe didn’t happen in a busy hospital. It happened because the hospital and physicians were not prepared to deal with the profound emergency. I see no benefit to anyone, by lobbying for VBAC’S. Thanks for the reply

To which I replied:


There is about a 0.4% risk of having a uterine rupture with one prior low transverse cesarean in a spontaneous labor (meaning you weren’t induced or given Pitocin or other similar drugs during your labor) (Landon, 2004). One would think that with all the hoopla about uterine rupture, that this rate would be significantly higher than other obstetrical complications.

You might be surprised to learn that uterine rupture occurs at a similar rate to other obstetrical complications such as post partum hemorrhage, cord prolapse or placental abruption! And when we look at infant outcomes, there is about a 6% chance of infant death or oxygen deprivation after an uterine rupture (Landon, 2004) compared to the 12% risk of infant death after a placental abruption (Ananth, 1999).

Yet how many first time moms worry their entire pregnancies about placental abruption? How many considered an elective primary cesarean in an attempt to circumvent abruption? How many were offered, or even strongly pressured, to consider an elective cesarean by their friends, family, or OB? How many where made to feel selfish over their desire to plan a vaginal birth in the face of risks such as abruption?

And where are all the lawsuits resulting from the infant deaths as a result of placental abruption? Why aren’t people outraged that all these babies are dying as a result of selfish moms who should have been prudent and had scheduled cesareans to prevent this tragedy? We hold VBAC to such an impossible standard because the tolerance for risk has been reduced to zero.

Moms planning a VBAC are often made to feel that having a repeat cesarean is the most prudent, conservative choice whereas only selfish women who wish to experience vaginal birth plan a VBAC. Only people who do not understand the statistics would make such a bold claim.

The problem is that most people don’t understand the rate of obstetrical complications in a first time mom. Conventional wisdom and rumor does not give your average individual enough information to adequately compare the risks of a primary vaginal birth, repeat vaginal birth, primary cesarean, repeat cesarean, primary VBAC and repeat VBAC. That is why we have medical studies because even doctors, who themselves attend thousands of births over their career, do not control for variables like researchers do. Doctors focus on practicing medicine whereas researchers, who are often medical doctors who still see patients, focus on constructing studies, maintaining records, and controlling for variables. All of this enables researchers to accurately detect and measure the incidence of complications and also identify larger patterns.

One thing we have learned from medical studies is that the risk of infant death during a VBAC attempt is “similar to the risk” of infant death during the labor of a first time mom (Smith, 2002). Should all first time moms have cesareans because their labor is just to risky?

Let’s not forget that while a cesarean could prevent a would-be uterine rupture, placental abruption, or cord prolapse, cesareans themselves introduce many serious risks. In the face of immediate death or damage to mom or baby, these risks are absolutely acceptable. However, when we are performing major abdominal surgery on the other 99.6% of women who will not have a uterine rupture, we are subjecting them to an unnecessary level of risk.

There are several complications that occur during a second scheduled cesarean section at a rate similar to or greater than the risk of uterine rupture during a spontaneous trial of labor after cesarean after one prior low transverse cesarean (0.4%) (Landon 2004). These complications include hysterectomy (0.42%), any blood transfusion (1.53%), a blood transfusion of four or more units (0.48%), maternal intensive care unit admission (0.57%), maternal wound infection (0.94%), and endometritis (2.56%) (Silver, 2006). And while Silver (2006) found that the maternal death rate was “only” 0.07% during a second cesarean, this is 3.5 times higher than the rate of maternal death in a trial of labor after cesarean (0.02%) and 1.4 times higher than the risk of infant death or oxygen deprivation (0.05%) (Landon, 2004.) Keep in mind that all the cesareans included in the Silver (2006) study were scheduled. All the complications noted were a direct result of the surgery, not of any other medical complication.

These are important facts for people to know before they make the judgment of which option is more “risky:” VBAC vs. repeat cesarean. It’s not enough to understand the risks of VBAC, one must also understand the risks of cesarean section. Only then can one see that neither are inherently safe or risky. They both offer a different set of risks. You can read more about the specific risks that cesareans pose in the article The risks of cesarean sections.

Cesareans also have major implications for all future pregnancies and delivery options. The risks of complications increase with each cesarean section which make subsequent pregnancies more precarious which increases the likelihood of a bad outcome for mom or baby. According to Silver (2006), a four year study of up to six repeat cesareans in 30,000 women:

Increased risks of placenta accreta, hysterectomy, transfusion of 4 units or more of packed red blood cells, [bladder injury], bowel injury, urethral injury, ileus [absence of muscular contractions of the intestine which normally move the food through the system], ICU admission, and longer operative time were seen with an increasing number of cesarean deliveries…. After the first cesarean, increased risk of placenta previa, need for postoperative (maternal) ventilator support, and more hospital days were seen with increasing number of cesarean deliveries.

Because the risks of cesarean are so great, they conclude their study with the following statement, “Because serious maternal morbidity increases progressively with increasing number of cesarean deliveries, the number of intended pregnancies should be considered during counseling regarding elective repeat cesarean operation versus a trial of labor and when debating the merits of elective primary cesarean delivery.”

Additionally, scheduled cesarean section puts anyone else who experiences a medical emergency requiring surgery in danger because those operating rooms become unavailable. I wonder how often women with true obstetrical complications requiring immediate cesareans, such as your wife, or non-obstetrical emergencies such as car accident or gunshot victims, have been unable to receive that urgent, time sensitive care due to otherwise healthy moms and healthy babies undergoing scheduled elective repeat cesareans and tying up the operating rooms? With 92% of women having repeat cesareans (Martin, 2006), I’m sure it’s happened, especially in smaller hospitals, many of which only have one or two operating rooms. These routine repeat cesareans impact everyone and it’s only going to get worse.

According to the CDC (Menacker, 2010), “The number of cesarean births increased by 71% from 1996 (797,119) to 2007 (1,367,049) [and] In 2007, approximately 1.4 million women had a cesarean birth, representing 32% of all births, the highest rate ever recorded in the United States and higher than rates in most other industrialized countries.” The latest data from the CDC shows that 92% of women have a repeat cesarean (Martin, 2009).  So with 1.4 million cesareans annually, we can look forward to approximately 1 million repeat cesareans annually in the future.  With primary cesarean rates growing, our repeat cesarean rate will grow, we will witness more of the complications identified by Silver (2006), including more maternal deaths, and more cases of people who really need emergency surgery dying because operating rooms are filled with otherwise healthy moms and healthy babies undergoing scheduled cesareans.

You said, “It happened because the hospital and physicians were not prepared to deal with the profound emergency.” I would gently suggest that the problem was more with your hospital than VBAC. They induced your wife with a drug that was contraindicated in a trial of labor after cesarean and then were unprepared for an obstetrical emergency. If your wife had a placental abruption or a serious complication from a repeat cesarean, it sounds like they would have been just as unprepared. That is an entirely separate issue than whether VBACs are excessively risky.

Thank you again for your comments and I wish you the best.



A reader asks, Am I making the right choice?

Isha recently left this comment:

I am pregnant and plan on having a VBAC. As my due date gets closer, I get more nervous about it. I hope I am making the right choice in having the VBAC.

Hi Isha!

I too wondered if it was unreasonable to plan a VBAC and that is when I started researching.  I found that learning more about the risks and benefits of VBAC vs. repeat cesarean gave me a lot of peace.  Check out the Quick Facts page for a brief overview and for more information, check out the information made available by the 2010 National Institutes of Health VBAC Conference.

There is about a 0.4% risk of having a uterine rupture with one prior low transverse cesarean in a spontaneous labor (meaning you weren’t induced or given pitocin or other similar drugs during your labor) (Landon, 2004).  One would think that with all the hoopla about uterine rupture, that this rate would be significantly higher than other obstetrical complications.

So I was really surprised to learn that uterine rupture occurs at a similar rate to other obstetrical complications such as shoulder dystocia, cord prolapse or placental abruption!  And when we look at infant outcomes, there is about a 6% chance of infant death or oxygen deprivation after an uterine rupture (Landon, 2004) compared to the 12% risk of infant death after a placental abruption (Ananth, 1999).

Yet how many of us as first time moms worried our entire pregnancies about any of those complications? How many of us considered an elective primary cesarean in an attempt to circumvent them? How many of us were offered, or even strongly pressured, to consider an elective cesarean by our friends, family, or OB?  How many of us where made to feel selfish over our desire to plan a vaginal birth?

Yet moms planning a VBAC are often made to feel that having a repeat cesarean is the most prudent, conservative choice whereas only selfish women who wish to experience vaginal birth plan a VBAC.  Only people who do not understand the statistics would make such a bold claim.

Just looking at the risks of VBAC isn’t enough when considering your options.  One must also consider the risks of a repeat cesarean.

I also suggest reading Another VBAC Consult Misinforms and Scare Tactics vs. Informed Consent for more discussion on how women are subtley, and sometimes not so subtley, coerced into repeat cesareans by their care providers.  Additionally, check out VBAC Ban Rationale is Irrational for why the much often quoted “24/7 anesthesia requirement” doesn’t make laboring women or hospitals safer.

Most people are not aware of these facts and thus rely on the conventional wisdom and persistent rumor that VBAC is so risky and cesareans are so safe. Neither are true. Both have risks and benefits.

But when comparing the risks and benefits, both the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (2010) and the National Institutes of Health (2010) have deemed VBAC a “reasonable option” for “most women” with one prior cesarean and “some women” with two prior cesareans.  Most people don’t know that either.

I hope this information gives you some peace.  While it’s not terribly soothing to learn that there are major, rare complications that can occur with either option, it’s also good to know that VBAC is not an excessively risky choice.




American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2010, July 21). Ob-Gyns Issue Less Restrictive VBAC Guidelines. Retrieved July 21, 2010, from ACOG: http://www.acog.org/from_home/publications/press_releases/nr07-21-10-1.cfm

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2010). ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 115: Vaginal Birth After Previous Cesarean Delivery. Washington DC.

Ananth, C. V., Berkowitz, G. S., Savitz, D. A., & Lapinski, R. H. (1999). Placental abruption and adverse perinatal outcomes. JAMA , 282 (17), 1646-1651.

Goer, H. (n.d.). When Research is Flawed: The Safety of Planned Vaginal Birth After Cesarean. Retrieved August 23, 2010, from Lamaze International: http://www.lamaze.org/Research/WhenResearchisFlawed/VBACLandon/tabid/175/Default.aspx

Landon, M. B., Hauth, J. C., & Leveno, K. J. (2004). Maternal and Perinatal Outcomes Associated with a Trial of Labor after Prior Cesarean Delivery. The New England Journal of Medicine, 351, 2581-2589.

National Institutes of Health. (2010, June). Final Statement. Retrieved from NIH Consensus Development Conference on Vaginal Birth After Cesarean: New Insights: http://consensus.nih.gov/2010/vbacstatement.htm

VBAC Ban Rationale is Irrational

Virginia of Hagerstown, Maryland left me this comment in response to the article Why if your hospital “allows” VBAC isn’t enough:

my hospital says that they will do a vbac but they aren’t set up for it because the labor side is far away from the c-section side so if i try to do a vbac and end up having a c section it will take a lot longer to get me to surgery. do you think this is a legitimate reason to consider not having a vbac? im too close to my due date (7 days left) to change hospitals or doctors although i am beginning to wish i would have. ..
-NERVOUS in hagerstown maryland

Hi Virginia,

The short answer is: No, that is not a legitimate reason to deny you a VBAC.

The reality is, you are less likely to experience an uterine rupture than a complication that has absolutely nothing to do with your prior uterine surgery.

Since obstetrical complications arise during labor in women with no history of uterine surgery that require immediate surgical delivery, or more commonly in women with multiple prior repeat cesareans, how can a hospital claim that they are fit to attend those births, but not yours?

Any birth (VBAC or not) could end in a medically necessary cesarean and any hospital (urban or rural) set up for birth should have a plan detailing how they will respond to those inevitabilities.

I have also often wondered how often women with true obstetrical complications requiring immediate cesareans or even car accident victims requiring surgery, have been unable to receive that care due to otherwise healthy moms and healthy babies undergoing  scheduled elective repeat cesareans occupying the operating rooms?  With 92% of American women having repeat cesareans (Martin, 2006), I’m sure it’s happened, especially in smaller hospitals.

The ability of rural hospitals to safely attend VBACs, as well as a specific plan that they could implement, was extensively discussed at the March 2010 National Institutes of Health VBAC conference.  One doctor spoke during the public comment period and stated that her rural hospital  – without 24/7 anesthesia – had a VBAC rate of over 30%!  It turns out, if a hospital is supportive of VBAC and motivated, they can absolutely offer VBAC safely.  (I also welcome you to read the commentary of two obstetricians and one certified nurse midwife who argued against the VBAC ban instated at their local rural hospital.)

As David J. Birnbach, M.D., M.P.H (2010), who presented on the impact of anesthesiologists on the incidence of VBAC asserted:

Lack of immediate available of anesthesia may not always be a key factor in outcome [during a uterine rupture], especially in cases where the obstetrician is not present. Many cases of uterine rupture can be stabilized while the anesthesiologists becomes available, and examples have been suggested of ways to reduce the risk associated with such a crisis. These include antepartum [prenatal] consultation of VBAC patients with the anesthesia departments, development of cesarean delivery under local anesthesia protocols, finding methods of improving communication on labor and delivery suites, practice “fire-drills,” and development of protocols matching resources to risk.

I urge you to watch Dr. Birnbach’s presentation along with all the presentations from the 2010 NIH VBAC conference.  The American Association of Justice article entitled “When every minute counts,” also discusses improving response times.

These drills would also be helpful to the women who have other obstetrical emergencies including placenta previa, placenta accreta, and other complications that are more common in women with multiple prior cesareans.

Additionally, as I argued here:

Scheduled cesarean section puts anyone else who experiences a medical emergency requiring surgery in danger because those operating rooms become unavailable. I wonder how often women with true obstetrical complications requiring immediate cesareans, such as your wife, or non-obstetrical emergencies such as car accident or gunshot victims, have been unable to receive that urgent, time sensitive care due to otherwise healthy moms and healthy babies undergoing scheduled elective repeat cesareans and tying up the operating rooms? With 92% of women having repeat cesareans (Martin, 2006), I’m sure it’s happened, especially in smaller hospitals, many of which only have one or two operating rooms.  These routine repeat cesareans impact everyone and it’s only going to get worse.

I highly recommend you read the Final Statement produced by the conference as it was the catalyst for the subsequent revision of ACOG’s (2010) VBAC guidelines in the Practice Bulletin No. 115 where they affirmed:

Women and their physicians may still make a plan for a TOLAC in situations where there may not be “immediately available” staff to handle emergencies, but it requires a thorough discussion of the local health care system, the available resources, and the potential for incremental risk.

This is a huge change.

The term “immediately available,” first introduced in the 1999 Practice Bulletin No. 5 and then reiterated in the 2004 Practice Bulletin No. 45, was the reason why many hospitals ultimately banned VBAC.  Hopefully the removal of that recommendation in this new Practice Bulletin will result in the reversal of VBAC bans and an overall greater support for VBA1C and VBA2C.  ACOG acknowledged that their prior recommendation was resulting in way to many cesareans and the increasing risks that multiple cesareans bring are significant and unacceptable.  (Please read the risks of multiple cesareans detailed by Silver 2006 in Another VBAC Consult Misinforms.)

The removal of the “immediately available” recommendation is supported by the NIH (2010) Final Statement which found it, if implemented in all hospitals, to be an impossible standard that could result in the closing of many Labor & Delivery units:

Would provision of an anesthesiologist standing by waiting for an emergency at every hospital that practices obstetric care increase patient safety?  In truth, that person would need to be doing nothing else clinically, so even being in the hospital might not qualify for “immediately available.”  Looking at the numbers of anesthesia staff currently available, the minimum requirement to provide immediate anesthesia [per the recommendation of the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologist] care for all deliveries would be to have all deliveries accomplished at facilities with greater than 1,500 deliveries annually.  This would require that approximately three-quarters of all obstetric programs nationwide be closed (Birnbach, 2010).

I am excited and hopeful to see the ripple effects of this new Practice Bulletin especially for women in rural areas.  Hopefully the option of VBAC will become a reality for more women.


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2010, July 21). Ob-Gyns Issue Less Restrictive VBAC Guidelines. Retrieved July 21, 2010, from ACOG: http://www.acog.org/from_home/publications/press_releases/nr07-21-10-1.cfm

Birnbach, D. J. (2010). Impact of anesthesiologists on the incidence of vaginal birth after cesarean in the United States: Role of anesthesia availability, productivity, guidelines, and patient saftey. Vaginal birth after cesarean: New Insights. Programs and Abstracts (pp. 85-87). Bethesda: National Institutes of Health.

Martin, J. A., Hamilton, B. E., Sutton, P. D., Ventura, S. J., Menacker, F., & Kirmeyer, S. (2006). Births: Final Data for 2004. National Vital Statistics Reports , 55 (1), 1-102.

National Institutes of Health. (2010, June). Final Statement. Retrieved from NIH Consensus Development Conference on Vaginal Birth After Cesarean: New Insights: http://consensus.nih.gov/2010/vbacstatement.htm

National Institutes of Health. (2010, March 8-10). NIH VBAC Conference: Program & Abstracts. Retrieved from NIH Consensus Development Program: http://consensus.nih.gov/2010/vbacabstracts.htm

Finding VBAC statistics for your hospital and state

Update 3/25/16: Another excellent resource for California residents is California Quality Care.

Update 4/11/12: Since I wrote this article, the brilliant Jill Arnold from the Unnecesarean started a new website where she shares cesarean rates by hospital: CesareanRates.com.  I would recommend checking this resource first before trying out the strategies I describe below.


Jeri left this comment at I’m pregnant and want a VBAC, what do I do?:

I want to plan for a VBAC I am not pregnant as of yet but will be ttc in 2 months. I am from La Crosse WI area and they have two hospitals Gunderson Lutheran and Franciscan Skemp..when I called them to get there statistics about VBACs they told me they didn’t have any. So how should I choose which hospital to go to for the better chance of succeeding with my VBAC. I also do not have any doulas in the area is it necessary to have a doula for a successful VBAC? Any thoughts or suggestions would be great. Thank you.

Hi Jeri!

It’s ironic that the person you spoke with at the hospital said that they didn’t have any VBAC statistics, because when I googled “Gundersen Lutheran VBAC,” I found a page entitled “Births by Cesarean and Vaginal Births After Cesarean” on Gundersen Lutheran’s very own website where they state:

A vaginal delivery is the preferred, naturally-designed way to have a baby but when needed, delivery by Cesarean section is a second option. At Gundersen Lutheran, efforts are made to choose a vaginal birth, even after a previous C-section unless there are reasons that would put mother or baby at risk.

“Generally, successful VBAC is associated with shorter maternal hospitalizations, less blood loss and fewer transfusions, fewer infections, and fewer thromboembolic events than cesarean delivery.” [ACOG Practice Bulletin #54 2004)

1. To have a cesarean section rate below the national rate
2. To have a VBAC rate higher than the national rate

They have succeeded in their goals as Gundersen Lutheran boasted a 27.3% VBAC rate in 2006.  That is exceptional considering that the national average is 9.2% (CDC 2006) and the Wisconsin state average is 12% (Wisconsin: Infant Births and Deaths 2006).

Ted Peck, M.D. is named “activity leader” on that page so I would contact him and ask for the top three VBAC doctors at Gunderson Lutheran.  I would also check out the resources here for additional referrals and to see if any of the names overlap.  Keep in mind that just because the hospital has a great VBAC rate doesn’t mean that all the OBs are supportive of VBAC.  You will still want to ask the same questions and interview a couple different doctors, just like you would get more than one quote if you wanted work done on your house.  You are the consumer, you have the power to chose who you will hire!  It’s important for you to understand the risks and benefits of VBAC vs. repeat cesarean to you, your baby, as well as your future children and health, but be on the look out for scare tactics masquerading as informed consent.

I also googled “Franciscan Skemp VBAC” and was directed to ICAN’s VBAC Hospital Policy Information where Franciscan Skemp is listed as a de facto VBAC ban hospital.  This means that while there is no formal ban in place, the hospital does not attend VBACs.  They could give you a whole list of reasons like, “Our OBs don’t want to do them” or “Our anesthesiologists don’t want to sit in the hospital during a VBAC labor,” but Dr. Stuart Fischbein gives us another perspective:

[Hospitals] ban VBACs under the guise of patient safety. But patient safety is a euphemism for “we don’t have a good evidence-based reason to do it, other than we don’t want to get sued, it’s more expedient, and we make more money from c-sections—the hospital does, not necessarily the physician, but the hospital does—so we’re going to ban it because it’s easier for us, and we’re going to say it’s for patient safety because of the risk of rupturing the uterus.” But you know what? That risk should be something that the patient decides. Patients have a right to be given informed consent, free from misinformation or coercion, free from skewing information that benefits the practitioner or the hospital. And they have the right to consent or refuse to accept the treatment that’s offered. That right is frequently being denied.

(To read more of this interview with Dr. Fischbein, please go to: An Inside Look at Hospitals & VBAC Bans.)

If I was unable to easily find this information by googling, I would have gone to Wisconsin’s Department of Health Services and just start searching for VBAC, birth, cesarean, and hospital statistics to see what I could find.  Sometimes this data is so deep within a website, it can be tricky to locate.  You could also call the Department of Health Services and ask them if they maintain hospital birth statistics.  The state of California maintains this data, but I don’t know if all states do and if they make that information available to the public.

In terms of a doula, yes, I think it’s very important for any woman laboring in a hospital, especially women seeking a VBAC, to have a doula.  (Here is more information on what a doula is and the many benefits of having one: DONA’s Birth Doula FAQs.)  Some practices are not supportive of doulas, even going so far as to post a sign in the waiting room detailing their anti-doula policy.  Switch providers immediately if you read a similar sign or if you discover that your provider is not doula friendly.  A great way to find out is to ask your OB or midwife if they have any doulas they can recommend.  Their response will quickly tell you if this care provider and you have the same vision for your birth.

I went to findadoula.com, and found there was one doula listed for La Cross, WI:

Renee Plunkett

Telephone: 608-786-4466

Location: West Salem Wisconsin United States

I also cover the following geographic areas:
La Crosse, WI

Hopefully you two will be a good fit and if not, the list of resources I provide for finding a supportive OB or midwife can also be used for finding a doula.  I would add DONA and toLabor (formally ALACE) which are Doula credentialing organizations as additional resources.  DONA lists 64 birth doulas and toLabor lists 10 birth doulas in Wisconsin.

You can find more VBAC statistics by going to the The Birth Survey’s State Resources page which provides links to each state’s birth statistics.

For Wisconsin, we have Wisconsin: Infant Births and Deaths, 2006 where we are given the following statistics on page 30:

Delivery Method Number Percentage
Vaginal (no previous C-section) 52,713 72.9%
Primary C-Section 10,342 14.3%
Repeat C-Section 7,418 10.3%
VBAC 1,017 1.4%
Forceps 812 1.1%
Other 0 0.0%
Total Births 72,302 100%

We can determine the VBAC rate by adding the number of Repeat C-Sections (7,418) and VBACs (1,017) together to get a total number of births after cesarean in 2006 (8,435).

By dividing the total number of VBACs (1,017) by the number of births after cesarean (8,435), and multiplying that number by 100, we get the VBAC rate of 12.06%.  This means that 87.9% of women in Wisconsin have repeat cesareans.

Here’s hoping you are in that 12%!


Jen from vbacfacts.com

Lightning strikes, shark bites & uterine rupture

When someone understates the risk of UR, I think it’s just as important the clarify as it is when someone overstates the risk. How else are women to make an informed decision? Just as it’s plain wrong for an OB to tell a woman with one prior low transverse cesarean that she has a 20% risk of rupture, it’s equally wrong when VBAC advocates say the risk is virtually non-existent.

Over the years, I have heard the statement: “You are more likely to be struck by lightning or bitten by a shark than experience uterine rupture!”

Today I’m going to get the statistics and run the numbers so you can see for yourself how the risk of these events compare.

Uterine Rupture

For this exercise, we will use the uterine rupture (UR) rate based on one prior low transverse (bikini) cut cesarean in a spontaneous labor determined by Maternal and Perinatal Outcomes Associated with a Trial of Labor after Prior Cesarean Delivery (Landon 2004):

Risk of uterine rupture: 1/240 or 0.4%
Risk of infant death or oxygen deprivation: 1/2000 or 0.05%

Lightning Strikes

Using the faulty theory I’m going to calculate the number of Floridians, since it is the “lightning strike state,” who would be struck by lightning.

Let’s assume that the risk of getting struck by lightning in Florida is the same as uterine rupture (even though the saying goes the risk is greater): 1 in 240 or 0.4%.

With 18,328,340 people living in Florida, that would mean that 76,368 people are struck by lightning every year in Florida. According to the CDC, that is more than the number of Americans who die annually from diabetes (72,449), Alzheimer’s disease (72,432), and influenza and pneumonia (56,326).

Using the National Weather Service stat that 10% of people struck by lightning die, we would have 7,636 people dying in Florida every year from lightning strikes. At that rate, you would have 209 people struck by lightning and 20 of those people dying every day in the state of Florida.

Now, I don’t live in Florida and I’m not an expert in lightning strikes, but that sounds like a lot of people dying.

Now let’s switch our assumptions and use the National Weather Service’s stats.

Odds of being struck by lightning in a given year (reported deaths + injuries) 1/700,000
Odds of being struck by lightning in a given year (estimated total deaths + injuries) 1/400,000

When we turn that fraction into a percentage, we get the following risk of being struck by lightening: 0.00025% – 0.00014%.

Using the National Weather Service’s statistics, we get 26 – 46 annual lightning strike related deaths or injuries in Florida.

Which sounds more reasonable to you? 26-46 Floridians struck annually by lightning or 76,368?

And that is assuming that the rate is the SAME as uterine rupture, but the rumor is that the rate of lightning strikes is HIGHER which means MORE than 76,368 Floridians are struck by lightning every year and more than 20 Floridians are dying daily from lightning strikes.

Now, does that pass the smell test? Does it seem reasonable in the least? It doesn’t to me.

Some would argue that in order to make the comparison, we need to eliminate the number of non-birthing people in Florida, but you really don’t because the lightning strike doesn’t know whether you are a man, woman, child, or menopausal. A Floridian women with one prior cesarean in spontaneous labor has the same risk as everyone else to be struck by lightning: 0.00025% – 0.00014%.

Shark Bites

From the Florida Museum of Natural History:

What are the chances of being attacked by a shark?

The chances of being attacked by a shark are very small compared to other animal attacks, natural disasters, and ocean-side dangers. Many more people drown in the ocean every year than are bitten by sharks. The few attacks that occur every year are an excellent indication that sharks do not feed on humans and that most attacks are simply due to mistaken identity. For more information on the relative risk of shark attacks to humans click HERE.

How many people are attacked each year by sharks?

Worldwide there is an average of 50-70 shark attacks every year. The number of attacks has been increasing over the decades as a result of increased human populations and the use of the oceans for recreational activity. As long as humans continue to enter the sharks’ environment, there will be shark attacks. For more information on shark attack statistics click HERE.

We have about 6.5 billion people on the world and 50-70 get bit by a shark annually which works out to 0.00000077% – 0.00000108%.

But this whole discussion is moot because it’s poor statistics to even compare these events (UR & lightning strikes or shark bites) because they are totally different types of occurrences.

The Actual Figures

This is a great chart from the Floria Museum of Natural History website entitled “A Comparison of Unprovoked Shark Attacks with the Number of Lightning Fatalities in Coastal United States: 1959-2008” where they show even in the state of Florida, over the past 49 years, there have been a mere 453 lightning fatalities and 585 shark bites. Remember that over 7,600 Floridans would be dying annually if the rate of uterine rupture was the same as the rate of lightning strikes.

Comparing Risks

There are some major problems when one is trying to compare risks of differing events.

One problem is when one uses a lifetime risk statistic as a means for comparison. You simply cannot take a statistic, like your lifetime risk of being struck by lightning (1 in 5000 which is significantly lower than one’s annual risk,) and compare that to your one-time risk of uterine rupture. If anything, using the annual risk of lightning strikes would be more accurate, but it still would be a false comparison.

An article by Andrew Pleasant entitled, Communicating statistics and risk, elaborates:

An oft-reported estimate is the lifetime breast cancer rate among women. This rate varies around the world from roughly three per cent to over 14 per cent.

In the United States, 12.7 per cent of women will develop breast cancer at some point in their lives. This statistic is often reported as, “one in eight women will get breast cancer”. But many readers will not understand their actual risk from this. For example, over 80 per cent of American women mistakenly believe that one in eight women will be diagnosed with breast cancer each year.

Using the statistic ‘one in eight’ makes a strong headline but can dramatically misrepresent individual breast cancer risk.

Throughout her life, a woman’s actual risk of breast cancer varies for many reasons, and is rarely ever actually one in eight. For instance, in the United States 0.43 per cent of women aged 30–39 (1 in 233) are diagnosed with breast cancer. In women aged 60–69, the rate is 3.65 per cent (1 in 27).

Journalists may report only the aggregate lifetime risk of one in eight because they are short of space. But such reporting incorrectly assumes that readers are uninterested in, or can’t comprehend, the underlying statistics. It is critically important to find a way, through words or graphics, to report as complete a picture as possible.

Take away message: Be extra careful to ensure your readers understand that a general population estimate of risk, exposure or probability may not accurately describe individual situations. Also, provide the important information that explains variation in individual risk. This might include age, diet, literacy level, location, education level, income, race and ethnicity, and a host of other genetic and lifestyle factors.

The second major problem is often the two things you are comparing are so different that the comparison is worthless. Again, I defer to Mr. Pleasant:

Try not to compare unlike risks. For instance, the all-too-often-used comparison ‘you’re more likely to be hit by a bus / have a road accident than to…’ will generally fail to inform people about the risks they are facing because the situations being compared are so different. When people assess risks and make decisions, they usually consider how much control they have over the risk. Driving is a voluntary risk that people feel (correctly or not) that they can control. This is distinctly different from an invisible contamination of a food product or being bitten by a malaria-carrying mosquito.

Comparing the risk of a non-communicable disease, for example diabetes or heart disease, to a communicable disease like HIV/AIDS or leprosy, is similarly inappropriate. The mechanisms of the diseases are different, and the varying social and cultural views of each makes the comparison a risky communication strategy.

Take away message: Compare different risks sparingly and with great caution because you cannot control how your audiences will interpret your use of metaphor.

Going Forward

It can be hard when wading through the (mis)information available on the internet about VBAC, but here are some tips to help you out.

1. Always find the source – If you find some great statistic, but there is no source referenced, be wary.

2. Verify the statistic – If there is a source listed, read through it. If there is no source listed, do a quick Google search. It didn’t take me long at all to find all the statistics in this article and run the math.

3. Leave a comment – If you find something on the internet that doesn’t pass the smell test, leave a comment on the blog or email the author asking for the source.

4. Be careful about forwarding things – There is so much misinformation on the internet, so do your friends a favor and don’t forward them emails or articles unless you have verified the information to be true. That is one way to quickly nip falsehoods in the bud!

For further reading on using statistics, check out, Correlation and Causation:Misuse and Misconception of Statistical Facts and Risk Communication, Risk Statistics, and Risk Comparisons: A Manual for Plant Managers

AAFP National VBAC Guidelines

Update: In May 2014, the AAFP released new guidelines.

This is a great piece for deciding between VBAC and repeat cesarean.  Those who wish to VBAC, but have husbands, family, and/or friends who don’t understand why, might find this document very useful.

I have found that people who are anti-VBAC really seem impressed by what doctors and medical organizations have to say, so I’m thinking they will find this document compelling.

Plus, VBAC has this reputation of being “risky” and repeat cesareans are thought of as the “conservative approach,” and this document challenges both lines of thinking.

Why not write a sweet little note like, “I know you are concerned about me choosing the VBAC, so I thought you would find this interesting,” and mail them a copy.  That way, they can read it, think it over, and you can chat about it later.

No one wants to see a loved one hurt or die, and since most believe that a repeat cesarean is the most conservative approach, they tend to lean in that direction.  However, once they understand that real, but small, risks are present with VBAC and repeat cesarean, and that the risks of VBAC go down with each VBAC whereas the risks of cesareans go up with each surgery, hopefully they will respect your decision.

I recommend bringing this document with you when you go to interview OBs about VBAC.  They might be unfamiliar with the data, and they too might be persuaded by a document written by a medical organization.  If your OB is anti-VBAC, this might be a good document to mail them once you have found a truly supportive OB or midwife.

I’ve included the entire text below because when I searched on Google for VBAC vs. Repeat Cesarean, it wasn’t on the first page of results, so I’d like to bring more attention to it.

Please note, they refer to VBAC as TOLAC (Trial of Labor After Cesarean.)

You can view and print the document in PDF format here: Trial of Labor After Cesarean: A Shared Patient-Physician Decision Tool.


In March 2005, the American Academy of
Family Physicians published an evidence based
clinical practice guideline on TOLAC
(Trial of Labor After Cesarean; formerly called
Trial of Labor Versus Elective Repeat Cesarean
Section for the Woman With a Previous
Cesarean Section).
The AAFP guideline
recommends offering a trial of labor to women
who have had one previous cesarean delivery
with a low transverse incision. The guideline
also recommends that physicians and other
maternity care professionals explore the risks
and benefits associated with a trial of labor with
each woman who is a candidate for TOLAC.
The following shared patient-physician decision
tool can be used to initiate the conversation
about the potential risks and benefits of TOLAC.
It is important to note that this piece is not
a patient education handout. It is not meant
to be used as a standalone tool. Physicians
should go through each section with the
TOLAC candidate and explain how each factor
may (or may not) affect her. After answering
any questions the patient may have, the
physician can give the annotated handout to
the patient so she and her partner can review
it as they consider their options.
To read the AAFP’s TOLAC Guideline, visit

Patient name: ____________________________________________________
Physician: _______________________________________________________

Trial of Labor After Cesarean:
Deciding What’s Right for You
and Your Baby

Women who have had a baby by cesarean section (C-section)
may have a choice about how to have their next
baby. They may choose to have another C-section. This
is called an “elective repeat cesarean delivery” (ERCD for
short). Or they may decide to try having the baby vaginally.
This is called a “trial of labor after cesarean” (TOLAC). When
a woman tries a trial of labor and is able to deliver vaginally,
this is called a “vaginal birth after cesarean” (VBAC).

If you’re reading this handout, it’s because your doctor
has decided that you have a choice between a planned
C-section and a trial of labor. To help you understand the
risks and benefits of each, you doctor will go through
this handout with you. He or she will explain how the
factors below apply to you. Be sure to ask your doctor any
questions you have. It’s important that you understand all
of the issues before you make a decision.

If I try labor, how likely am I to have my baby vaginally?
Because every situation is different, no one can tell if you
will be able to give birth vaginally. However, you should
know that about 76 out of 100 women who try a trial of
labor deliver their babies vaginally.

What happens to women who try labor but can’t
deliver vaginally?
Some women who try a trial of labor are not able to deliver
vaginally and end up having an unplanned C-section. You
should know that most of the babies born by unplanned
C-section are healthy and do not have long-term problems
from the C-section.

Is it is safer trying labor or having a planned C-section?
You already know that having a baby—whether vaginally or
by C-section—has some risks. The risks are generally small
whether you choose a trial of labor or planned C-section.
Studies have shown that there is no difference between
the two when it comes to the woman’s risk of death or
hysterectomy. There are, however, a few other risks to
consider. These are explained below.

Infection. Of women who choose a trial of labor,
7 out of 100 will get an infection. By comparison,
9 or 10 out of 100 women who choose planned
C-section will get an infection. This means that women
who choose C-section have a slightly higher risk of
infection (2% to 3% higher) than women who choose a trial
of labor.

Uterine rupture. A C-section leaves a scar on the
uterus. During a trial of labor, the scar can break open.
Usually this doesn’t affect you or the baby. In rare cases,
however, it can pose serious risks to you or your baby.
This is called symptomatic uterine rupture and it occurs
in 2.7 out of 1,000 women, or about ¼ of 1%, who try a
trial of labor.

Infant death. Sometimes—but not always—uterine rupture
results in the death of the baby. The chance of
this is about 15 in 100,000, or about 1/100th of 1%, in
women who try a trial of labor. There is no good data
about the risk of infant death for women who choose
elective repeat C-section.

What factors affect my chances of delivering
Doctors have studied thousands of women who have
attempted a trial of labor. They found that the following
factors affect a woman’s chance of delivering vaginally.
Your doctor will tell you how these factors apply to you.
You might want to ask your doctor to put a checkmark
next to the factors that may affect you and to cross out
the ones that probably won’t.

Factors that increase the likelihood of a
vaginal birth after C-section (VBAC)

• Being younger than 40 years old. If you’re under 40,
you are 2½ times more likely to have a VBAC.
My age: _________
Other notes: ________________________________

• Having a vaginal birth before. If you’ve ever had a
baby vaginally, you’re more likely to be able to deliver
that way again.
I had a baby vaginally, but it was before I had a
C-section. You are 1½ to 2 times more likely to
deliver vaginally again.
I had a baby vaginally after I had a baby by
C-section. You are 3 to 8 times more likely to
have a VBAC.
Notes about your previous delivery or deliveries:
Other notes: ________________________________

• Having favorable cervical factors during labor. This
means that your cervix is dilated (open) and effaced
(thinned out) enough to deliver vaginally. If you’re well
dilated and effaced, you are 1½ to 5 times more likely
to have a VBAC. If you’ve had a vaginal birth before,
your cervix may open and thin out more quickly than if
you haven’t. If you haven’t had a vaginal birth, it’s hard
to tell how well dilated and effaced your cervix will
become during labor.
I have had a previous vaginal birth.
Other notes: ________________________________

• If the reason you needed a C-section before isn’t
a factor this time. You might have needed a
C-section because of infection, difficult labor, breech
presentation, or concerns about the baby’s size or
heart rate. If you don’t have the same problem this
time, you are 2 times more likely to have a VBAC.
Reason for my previous C-section: ______________
Other notes: ________________________________
Factors that decrease the likelihood
of a VBAC

• Having had more than one C-section. If you have had
two or more C-sections, you’re 60% less likely to have
Number of C-sections I’ve had: _________
Other notes: ________________________________


• Going into labor after 40 weeks. After this time, you
are 20% to 30% less likely to have a VBAC.
My baby’s current gestational age: ________
My previous child(ren)’s gestational age(s) at birth:
Other notes: ________________________________

For all women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Less than 1 birth per 1,000
For women who have
not had a C-section . . . . . . . . . Less than 1 birth per 1,000
For women who have an
elective repeat C-section . . . . About 1 birth per 1,000
For women who have a trial
of labor after C-section . . . . . . 2 to 4 births per 1,000
(800) 274-2237 • www.aafp.org

• Trying to deliver a baby that is 8 pounds, 13 ounces
(4,000 grams) or larger. If your baby weighs this much
(or more), you are 40% less likely to have a VBAC.
My baby’s current estimated weight: ____________
My previous child(ren)’s weight(s) at birth: _______
Other notes: ________________________________

• Using medicines to induce or augment labor. If you
need medicine to start or help your labor, you are 50%
less likely to have a VBAC.
Notes: _____________________________________

What if I have other concerns?
In addition to thinking about your health and that of your
baby, you’re probably dealing with emotional issues
and practical concerns about the birth. Some common
concerns are listed below. When you read through this
list, you may want to put a checkmark next to the issues
you really care about and cross out those that aren’t
as important to you. Talk with your doctor about your
concerns. These issues haven’t been studied like the ones
above, but your doctor may be able to give you some
insight into how they might affect you.

Recovery time. If you deliver vaginally, you’ll probably
spend less time in the hospital and be back on your
feet more quickly. Some women think this is important
because they’ll be caring for the new baby and their older
children too.

Involvement in the delivery. For some women, having a
baby vaginally is more emotionally satisfying than having
a C-section. You get to hold your baby sooner, which
may help with bonding and even with breastfeeding. Your
partner may feel more involved in a vaginal birth too.

Future childbearing. Doctors typically don’t want women
to have more than two or three C-sections. So, you’re more
likely to be able to have more children if you have a vaginal
birth instead of another C-section.

Planned versus unplanned delivery date. Because
it’s better to go into labor on your own when you’re
planning a trial of labor, you probably won’t be able to
be induced. Not knowing when you will go into labor can
be stressful. It can also be a problem if you can’t arrange
for someone to watch your other child or children at a
moment’s notice. For these reasons, some women prefer
to plan on a C-section.

Pain during labor and delivery. If you had an especially
difficult and painful labor before, you may fear going
through it again. For this reason, some women prefer to
have another C-section and avoid labor. It’s important to
remember, though, that there are ways to manage the pain
if you decide on a trial of labor.

How do I make this choice?
You and your partner should work with your doctor to
decide whether the benefits of a trial of labor outweigh
the risks.

If you decide to try labor, you and your doctor will talk
about what to do if it looks like your labor is running into
complications. It’s best to have a plan before you begin your
labor so that you don’t have to make decisions during labor.

1. Wall E, Roberts R, Deutchman M, Hueston W, Atwood LA, Ireland B.
Trial of labor after cesarean (TOLAC), formerly trial of labor versus
elective repeat cesarean section for the woman with a previous
cesarean section. Leawood, Kan.: American Academy of Family
Physicians; March 2005.
2. Guise J-M, McDonagh M, Hashima J, Kraemer DF, Eden KB,
Berlin M, et al. Vaginal Birth After Cesarean (VBAC). Evidence
Report/Technology Assessment No. 71. Rockville, Md.: Agency for
Healthcare Research and Quality; March 2003. AHRQ Publication
No. 03-E018.
3. Gardeil F, Daly S, Turner MJ. Uterine rupture in pregnancy reviewed.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1994;56:107-10.
4. Miller DA, Goodwin TM, Gherman RB, Paul RH. Intrapartum rupture
of the unscarred uterus. Obstet Gynecol 1997;89:671-3.
5. Kieser KE, Baskett TF. A 10-year population based study of uterine
rupture. Obstet Gynecol 2002;100:749-53.

Uterine rupture risk drops significantly after first VBAC

As we know, the risks of cesareans increase with each surgery which is why family size should be considered when evaluating your post-cesarean birth options. Couple that fact with the results of Mercer (2008) which found that successful VBAC also provides a level of protection to future deliveries.

Mercer found that not only do the risks of uterine rupture, uterine dehiscence and other peripartum complications decrease after the first VBAC, but “VBAC success increased with increasing number of prior VBACs” to rates over 90% for women with two or more prior VBACs.  They also found that while two or more VBACs did not decrease the risk of rupture further (so a scarred mom’s risk of rupture never goes down to the risk of an unscarred mom), it’s important to note that the risk of rupture did not increase with subsequent VBACs as women are sometimes told in an effort to obtain their consent for a repeat cesarean.


Mercer, B. M., Gilbert, S., Landon, M. B., & Spong, C. Y. (2008). Labor Outcomes With Increasing Number of Prior Vaginal Births After Cesarean Delivery. Obstetrics & Gynecology , 11, 285-91. Retrieved from http://journals.lww.com/greenjournal/Fulltext/2008/02000/Labor_Outcomes_With_Increasing_Number_of_Prior.6.aspx